10 Commitments

Go to www.geneva2000.org

Resources (Commitment 9 from Copenhagen):

Increase resources allocated to social development

Download the package of UN documents on finance for social development
TXT file (298 KB), ZIP file (83 KB)

International Agreements

UN Agencies & 
Intergov. Bodies reports




Indigenous Peoples

Religious Communities

Business & Industry

Trade Unions

Research, Education


Local Authorities


International Agreements

Commitment 9 from the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development

World Summit on Social Development, Copenhagen 1995
B. Principles and Goals
C: Commitments
(esp 4(n), 7(b)) 

Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development
Chapter I: Enabling Environment
Actions A: A favourable national and international economic environment

Chapter V: Implementation and Follow-up; especially C: Mobilisation of financial resources

Commission on Social Development (CsocDev)
Main Issue: Poverty
Chapter III: Substantive theme. Strategies and action for eradication of poverty

Chapter II
Paragraph 62,63: Resource mobilisation, indicators

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Earth Summit 1992: 
Principle 12: Cooperation between states to promote economic growth

Agenda 21
Section IV, Ch 33
: Financial Resources and Mechanisms

The Forest Principles
Financial Resources
Par 10 Financial Resources to developing countries

Human Rights Review:
Chapter IV, Par 29: Right to economic growth and development

International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo 1994:
Chapter 1: Preamble: establishes interrelationship between economic growth, development and poverty
Chapter 3B, 3.22: Financial resources for economic growth
Chapter 13: National Action
A. National policies and plans of action
    B. Programme management and human resource development
    C. Resource mobilization and allocation
Chapter 14: International Co-operation
Responsibilities of partners in development
    Towards a new commitment to funding population and development

4th World Conference on Women, Beijing 1995:
Chapter VI: Financial Arrangements
C: International level

Beijing Declaration
Financial resources for economic growth
Paragraph 36,37,38

Habitat II Conference, Istanbul 1996
Habitat Agenda
Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements

Chapter II
: Goals and Principles
Paragraph 35

Chapter III: Commitments
    E: Financing shelter and human settlements
    F: International Cooperation

Chapter IV: Global Plan of Action
    C: Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
    9: Improving Urban Economics

    D. Capacity-building and institutional development
    6. Domestic financial resources and economic instruments

    E. International cooperation and coordination
    2. An enabling international context
    3. Financial resources and economic instruments

UN Commissions

Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
Chapter I F: Initial financial commitments, financial flows and arrangements to give effect to the decisions of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development from all available funding sources and mechanisms
Chapter VIII: Initial financial commitments

Main Issue: Implementation of Agenda 21
Chapter I B: Financial resources and mechanisms
Chapter I F: Other matters: 217 (a), 219

Main Issue: Implementation of Agenda 21, focusing on cross-sectoral components
Chapter I B: Financial resources and mechanisms

Main Issue: Global Programme of Action for Protection of Marine Environment from Land based activities
Chapter I 5(a)(b)(c)
Chapter I C, Decision 4/14: Financial resources and mechanisms

Chapter I B, Decision 6/2: Industry and sustainable development
(esp A: Industry and economic development)

Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)
Resolution 36/6: Women and the Environment
Paragraph 4 (additional financial resources)

Chapter III
Paragraph 119 (4): Monitoring the Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women

Agreed conclusion 1997/3 Women and the economy
Paragraph 3: Mainstreaming a gender perspective in policies and programmes

Commission on Population and Development
Chapter IV A: Activities of UN Population Fund
Chapter IV B: Monitoring of multilateral population assistance

Report of Secretary General: Flows of financial resources for population activities (pdf format)

Report of Secretary General: The flow of financial resources for assisting in the
implementation of the Programme for Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (pdf format)

UN Conventions

CEDAW - Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against women
The Convention Document (Article 11,13,14: Women + economy)


UN Agencies & Intergovernmental Bodies reports

Human Development Report 1991



The lack of political commitment, not of financial resources, is often the real cause of human neglect. This is the main conclusion of Human Development Report 1991- the second in a series of annual reports on the subject. The Report points to an enormous potential for restructuring of both national budgets and international aid allocations in favour of human development. But the plea for greater allocative efficiency and more effective spending does not mean indifference to the need for economic growth, or for increased resource mobilisation. On the contrary. The Report's position is that a more efficient and effective public sector will help strengthen the private role in human development. And the best argument for additional resources is that the existing funds are well spent.
Human Development Report 1991 lays the foundations for a fresh set of priorities. It explains how they can be chosen, how they can be assessed-and why we can afford to pay for them.
Future reports will build on this foundation. The aim will be to refine further the concepts and the methods of measurement-and to distil more practical experience from many countries. Another aim will be to do more research and analysis on participatory development and to examine the global dimensions of human development, looking at familiar international issues from a human perspective.
The final message of this year's Report is one of hope. If the obstacles to human development lie in the paucity of resources, in insuperable technical barriers, the task would be hopeless. We know instead that it is too often a lack of political commitment, not of resources, that is the ultimate cause of human neglect. If we can mobilize the political base for action-nationally and globally-the future of human development is secure.


World Bank 

The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) 

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
was established on April 12, 1988, as the newest member organization of the World Bank Group. Its purpose is to encourage the flow of foreign direct investment to its developing member countries for economic development. Its primary means of facilitating investment is through the provision of investment guarantees against the risks of currency transfer, expropriation, and war and civil disturbance (political risks).


Asian Development Bank


The Asian Development Bank, a multilateral development finance institution, was founded in 1966 by 31 member governments to promote the social and economic progress of the Asian and Pacific region. Over the past 31 years, the Bank's membership has grown to 57, of which 41 are from within the region and 16 from outside the region.
The Bank gives special attention to the needs of the smaller or less-developed countries and priority to regional, subregional, and national projects and programs.
The Bank's principal functions are (i) to extend loans and equity investments for the economic and social development of its developing member countries (DMCs); (ii) to provide technical assistance for the preparation and execution of development projects and programs, and for advisory services; (iii) to promote and facilitate investment of public and private capital for development purposes; and (iv) to respond to requests for assistance in coordinating development policies and plans of its DMCs.


International Fund for Agricultural Development - Rome, Italy http://www.ifad.org/
IFAD, a specialized agency of the United Nations, was established in 1977 as an international financial institution as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference. The Conference was organized as a response to the food crises of the early 1970’s primarily affecting the Sahelian countries of Africa. The Conference resolved that "an International Fund for Agricultural Development should be established immediately to finance agricultural development projects primarily for food production in the developing countries". One of the most important insights emerging from the Conference was that the causes of food insecurity and famine were not so much failures in food production, but structural problems relating to poverty and to the fact that the majority of the developing world’s poor populations were concentrated in rural areas.


NGO Documents

The Bretton Woods Project http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/
The Bretton Woods Project was set up in 1995 to facilitate the work of UK non-government organisations (NGOs) concerned about the social and environmental impacts of World Bank and IMF financing in developing countries. The Project works to monitor and reform the World Bank and IMF. It tracks key policy statements and reports, and provides critiques and early warnings used by non-governmental organisations across the world. The Project circulates information to NGOs in the UK and across the world, identifies lobbying or campaigning opportunities, organises meetings with officials and prepares briefings on important issues. The Project's quarterly newsletter, the Bretton Woods Update, summarises key World Bank, IMF and NGO activities and lists available documents and important dates.


Care Programmes http://www.care.org/programs/economic/index.html
Economic development


Coalition for Global Solidarity and Social Development http://www.globalsolidarity.npaid.org/coalition.html
The Coalition is promoting grass-roots participation and involvement in the social summit and linking together groups and organisations working from around the world in a common, global initiative to raise understanding and awareness of the principles and aims of the summit, and to strengthen global solidarity, cooperation, and coordination. 

Articles on debt

Articles on Tobin tax

Articles on WTO, IMF and the World Bank


Earth Summit 1992: Recommendations to the UN
People’s Earth Declaration
Rio de Janeiro Declaration
Treaty for NGO cooperation and sharing of resources
11-16 Alternative Economic Issues


Earth Summit II, 1997 Recommendations for Actions and Commitments at Earth Summit II
Non-Governmental Organization Revised Draft Background Paper
3.1: Access to resources
3.2: Trade


NGO Documents for CSD


NGO-Non paper for Earth Summit III


Finance, Investment and Trade Caucus


Visit this site to find documents on:
- NGO Position Papers
- World Trade Organisation (WTO) ministerial conference in Seattle
- NGO Background Papers
- CSD Secretariat's Finance Page



Association for the Taxation of financial Transactions for the benefit of Citizens.
A group linking citizens, associations, trade unions and newspapers founded ATTAC in France in 1998 around the platform.

Global Policy Forum

Global Policy Forum monitors global policy making at the United Nations.
This section of the website explores global taxes and their dual role as policy instruments and as revenue sources for international programs and institutions.  Most interest in global taxes has concentrated on two policy goals -- taxation as a means to regulate carbon emissions into the atmosphere (Carbon Tax) and taxation to reduce currency speculation (Tobin Tax). This page explores the different ways in which global taxes can be implemented, the need for democratic oversight and control, the policy shaping effects, distributive effects, and the possible use of such taxes to fund the UN, its agencies like the World Health Organization, and other programs for worldwide human security and development.


Halifax Initiative Canada http://www.web.net/~halifax/index.htm
The Halifax Initiative is a coalition of environment, development, social justice and faith groups deeply concerned about the policies and practices of the international financial institutions and committed to their fundamental reform. The Halifax Initiative has established itself as the Canadian presence for public interest advocacy and education on international financial institutional reform. The coalition's work is currently focused on the issues of multilateral debt relief, World Bank energy policy and practice and international currency speculation.
Visit sections on:
- Drop the Debt
- Tobin Tax
- Bretton Woods Reform 
- World Bank and Energy


International Co-operative Alliance http://www.coop.org/ica/ica/UN/
an independent, non-governmental association which unites, represents and serves co-operatives worldwide. Its members are national and international co-operative organisations in all sectors of activity including agriculture, banking, energy, industry, insurance, fisheries, housing, tourism and consumer co-operatives. ICA has more than 230 member organisations from over 100 countries, representing more than 730 million individuals worldwide. The role of the ICA is to act as a catalyst and coordinator of co-operative development, with the aim of promoting and strengthening autonomous co-operatives throughout the world. The focus of the ICA programmes, based on the expressed priorities of its members, is:
  • institution building, human resource development, women's integration, strategic planning
  • influencing Governments in order to create favourable environments for co-operative development, including organising regional level Ministerial Conferences to sensitise government leaders on the role of co-operatives;
  • networking and promoting the exchange of experience and movement-to-movement assistance;
  • mobilising financial resources for co-operative development.
Jubilee 2000 Coalition http://www.jubilee2000.org/
read about the philosophy behind the Project as described in the Jubilee 2000 Agenda, visit the Jubilee 2000 Project page where you will find details regarding the way the Project is being organized and how you can participate. Visit the Jubilee 2000 Forum, where you can participate in wide-ranging discussions on relevant issues.


United Nations Environment and Development UK Committee (UNED-UK)
Tobin Tax for Social Development (June 2000)
Peer-reviewed paper 
War on Want, UK http://www.waronwant.org/
War on Want is at the cutting edge of international campaigning and practical solidarity. It helps people find their own solutions and campaign against the root causes of poverty. In the struggle to end exploitation and oppression War on Want is on the front-line, challenging the powerful and helping the dispossessed fight back.
Go to 'Campaigns'  for a section on Tobin Tax


CSD NGO Women's Caucus From Access to Empowerment: Gender Issues in Micro-Finance
Position Papers: Finance & Trade




International Youth and Student Movement (ISMUN) http://www.globalpolicy.org/finance/alternat/ecosoc/jlecosoc.htm
Statement to ECOSOC on New and Innovative ideas for Generating Fund (July 1997)



Indigenous Peoples


Religious Communities

Ecumenical Coalition for Economic Justice http://www.ecej.org/
a project of Canadian churches working together for a just, moral and sustainable "economy of hope". 
ECEJ carries out a variety of activities:
- Research and policy analysis
- Education and Leadership Development
- Advocacy 
- Linking to social justice movements 
Papers on:
The Debt of Developing Countries
uctural Adjustment Policies (SAPs)
Currency Transaction Tax



Business & Industry

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) was established in 1991.
It exists to foster the transition towards open market-oriented economies and to promote private and entrepreneurial initiative in the countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) committed to and applying the principles of multiparty democracy, pluralism and market economics.


Inter-American Development Bank- Washington
The Inter-American Development Bank, the oldest and largest regional multilateral development institution, was established in December of 1959 to help accelerate economic and social development in Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Bank was created in response to a longstanding desire on the part of the Latin American nations for a development institution that would focus on the pressing problems of the region.
In addition to the Bank, the IDB Group consists of the Inter-American Investment Corporation (IIC) and the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF). The IIC, an autonomous affiliate of the Bank, was established to promote the economic development of the region by financing small and medium-scale private enterprises. The MIF was created in 1992 to promote investment reforms and to stimulate private-sector development.


Asian Development Bank http://www.adb.org/
The Asian Development Bank, a multilateral development finance institution, was founded in 1966 by 31 member governments to promote the social and economic progress of the Asian and Pacific region. Over the past 31 years, the Bank's membership has grown to 57, of which 41 are from within the region and 16 from outside the region.
The Bank gives special attention to the needs of the smaller or less-developed countries and priority to regional, subregional, and national projects and programs.
The Bank's principal functions are (i) to extend loans and equity investments for the economic and social development of its developing member countries (DMCs); (ii) to provide technical assistance for the preparation and execution of development projects and programs, and for advisory services; (iii) to promote and facilitate investment of public and private capital for development purposes; and (iv) to respond to requests for assistance in coordinating development policies and plans of its DMCs.



Trade Unions

World Directory of Trade Unions http://www.cf.ac.uk/ccin/union/links.html
there are over 1500 links to international union organisations, national unions, locals and union resource sites in every continent.
Visit this site for more information on:
- Trade Union Resources on the Web
- Labour Movement News
- Schedule of Conferences, etc. 



Research, Education




Local Authorities


Descriptions have been taken and adapted from the web-sites linked to.



Commitment 9: Resources

We commit ourselves to increasing significantly and/or utilizing more efficiently the resources allocated to social development in order to achieve the goals of the Summit through national action and regional and international cooperation.

To this end, at the national level, we will:

(a) Develop economic policies to promote and mobilize domestic savings and attract external resources for productive investment, and seek innovative sources of funding, both public and private, for social programmes, while ensuring their effective utilization;

(b) Implement macroeconomic and micro-economic policies to ensure sustained economic growth and sustainable development to support social development;

(c) Promote increased access to credit for small and micro-enterprises, including those in the informal sector, with particular emphasis on the disadvantaged sectors of society;

(d) Ensure that reliable statistics and statistical indicators are used to develop and assess social policies and programmes so that economic and social resources are used efficiently and effectively;

(e) Ensure that, in accordance with national priorities and policies, taxation systems are fair, progressive and economically efficient, cognizant of sustainable development concerns, and ensure effective collection of tax liabilities;

(f) In the budgetary process, ensure transparency and accountability in the use of public resources, and give priority to providing and improving basic social services;

(g) Undertake to explore new ways of generating new public and private financial resources, inter alia, through the appropriate reduction of excessive military expenditures, including global military expenditures and the arms trade, and investments for arms production and acquisition, taking into consideration national security requirements, so as to allow possible allocation of additional funds for social and economic development;

(h) Utilize and develop fully the potential and contribution of cooperatives for the attainment of social development goals, in particular the eradication of poverty, the generation of full and productive employment, and the enhancement of social integration.

At the international level, we will:

(i) Seek to mobilize new and additional financial resources that are both adequate and predictable and are mobilized in a way that maximizes the availability of such resources and uses all available funding sources and mechanisms, inter alia, multilateral, bilateral and private sources, including on concessional and grant terms;

(j) Facilitate the flow to developing countries of international finance, technology and human skill in order to realize the objective of providing new and additional resources that are both adequate and predictable;

(k) Facilitate the flow of international finance, technology and human skill towards the countries with economies in transition;

(l) Strive for the fulfillment of the agreed target of 0.7 per cent of gross national product for overall official development assistance as soon as possible, and increase the share of funding for social development programmes, commensurate with the scope and scale of activities required to achieve the objectives and goals of the present Declaration and the Programme of Action of the Summit;

(m) Increase the flow of international resources to meet the needs of countries facing problems relating to refugees and displaced persons;

(n) Support South-South cooperation, which can take advantage of the experience of developing countries that have overcome similar difficulties;

(o) Ensure the urgent implementation of existing debt-relief agreements and negotiate further initiatives, in addition to existing ones, to alleviate the debts of the poorest and heavily indebted low-income countries at an early date, especially through more favourable terms of debt forgiveness, including application of the terms of debt forgiveness agreed upon in the Paris Club in December 1994, which encompass debt reduction, including cancellation or other debt-relief measures; where appropriate, these countries should be given a reduction of their bilateral official debt sufficient to enable them to exit from the rescheduling process and resume growth and development; invite the international financial institutions to examine innovative approaches to assist low-income countries with a high proportion of multilateral debt, with a view to alleviating their debt burdens; develop techniques of debt conversion applied to social development programmes and projects in conformity with Summit priorities;

(p) Fully implement the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations 20/ as scheduled, including the complementary provisions specified in the Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization, 20/ in recognition of the fact that broadly based growth in incomes, employment and trade are mutually reinforcing, taking into account the need to assist African countries and the least developed countries in evaluating the impact of the implementation of the Final Act so that they can benefit fully;

(q) Monitor the impact of trade liberalization on the progress made in developing countries to meet basic human needs, giving particular attention to new initiatives to expand their access to international markets;

(r) Give attention to the needs of countries with economies in transition with respect to international cooperation and financial and technical assistance, stressing the need for the full integration of economies in transition into the world economy, in particular to improve market access for exports in accordance with multilateral trade rules, taking into account the needs of developing countries;

(s) Support United Nations development efforts by a substantial increase in resources for operational activities on a predictable, continuous and assured basis, commensurate with the increasing needs of developing countries, as stated in General Assembly resolution 47/199, and strengthen the capacity of the United Nations and the specialized agencies to fulfill their responsibilities in the implementation of the outcome of the World Summit for Social Development.

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