NGO Documents for the Earth Summit, 1992
Non-Governmental Organization Alternative Treaties
at the '92 Global Forum
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Treaty 45. Treaty on Militarism, the Environment and Development
1. In recognition of the links between militarism, debt, environmental degradation and
maldevelopment and in view of the fact that the United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development (UNCED) process has thus far excluded these connections, we demand that
the impact of militarism on the earth, its people and on the global economy be put on the
2. Military activity destroys life, wreaks havoc on the environment and depletes
resources. A complete, general and environmentally sound demilitarization, free from
nuclear weapons and nuclear waste and free from regional conflicts and military
dictatorships is imperative.
3. As long as 20% of the world's population devours 80% of the world's resources and
energy, military force will be used to maintain this inequitable situation. Poverty and
hunger generate tensions and pressure which can only be perpetuated by military
4. Militarization originating in economic exploitation and in all forms of domination,
including patriarchal systems, destroys the Earth and the various forms of life on it.
Militarism, during periods of war and peace has an immensely negative impact on the
environment, as it uses up the natural and human resources needed for economic and social
5. There is an urgent need for demilitarization, for the abolition of war and for a
lasting world peace. For the sake of present and future generations, equitable social and
economic security is essential.
6. Security must no longer be defined in exclusively military terms but in a
comprehensive way, encompassing: personal security, free from violence and sexual abuse;
local security where all basics needs are met; and common, global security where the
rights of people and other species to live in a healthy environment are respected.
7. This type of security cannot be achieved unless justice prevails and unless
economic, political, legal and social systems are radically transformed. Huge military
expenditures that burden nations with external debts, siphon off precious resources and
impede the fulfillment of societal needs must be stopped immediately.
8. A new world order demands that no country police the world, intervene militarily and
extend its vital space to foreign bases and outer space. Military forces and bases must be
eliminated from the territory of other countries since they violate the principle of the
right to self determination of peoples.
9. The threat or use of force as well as all forms of violence are unacceptable,
including rape and torture, summary executions and disappearances and loss of life through
warfare and intelligence work. Conflicts must be resolved by non-violent means.
Negotiation, mediation and sanctions decided upon multilaterally must replace military
action. Any type of unilateral sanctions must be repudiated.
10. Environmental destruction and the depletion of resources both lead and result from
armed conflict. Furthermore, these and the use of space for military purposes endanger the
11. We demand that our governments negotiate and ratify a comprehensive test ban
treaty. Principle 26 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration calling for the elimination of
weapons of mass destruction should be reaffirmed and extended to include all weapons.
12. We will work against the imbalances of class, culture, color and gender in power
relationships. We seek to promote balanced participation in all decision making at all
levels. We will work for an end to the exploitation of women, children and other peoples
marginalized by dominant military systems.
13. We will support all those facing military or police repression because of their
opposition to war, their promotion of human rights, or their opposition to projects with
negative environmental or developmental consequences.
14. We hold the governments and the military industrial complex accountable for any
direct or indirect damage they cause to the environment. We insist on the registration and
reciprocal inspections of all weapons of mass destruction, which must be dismantled
without replacement. We will organize boycotts of those companies which produce
environmentally damaging products for military purposes.
15. We will campaign for the simultaneous reduction of military spending in all
countries as quickly as possible and for the transfer of these resources to meet human and
environmental needs. Going beyond monitoring and control, we will work to abolish the
international weapons trade, which is morally as unacceptable as the slave or drug trade.
16. We will educate ourselves and others in conflict resolution and we will promote
peaceful resolution to all disputes.
17. We will strengthen relationships between non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
world wide. Our goal is to facilitate the sharing of information and the sharing of
solidarity about the environmental impacts of militarism and the interconnection between
development, environment, debt, domination and militarization.
18. We will declare our territories and localities free of nuclear, chemical and
biological weapons, as well as weapon systems and nuclear power and we will work to
eliminate their development, production transportation and storage.
19. We will join indigenous peoples in opposing the use of their lands or territories
and of their airspace, for military purposes including uranium mining, the testing of
weapons, and the dumping, storage and incineration of hazardous and radioactive wastes.
20. We will campaign against the conditioning of society, particularly children,
through the media and through war games and war toys. We will promote education for peace.
21. Because of the chemical toxicity and radioactivity of depleted uranium (U238), we
will work for the immediate prohibition of its use and the use of similar materials in the
manufacturing of military and civilian equipment.
22. We condemn the use of any pretext, including narco-traffic, as a justification to
invade, to militarize, or to destroy regions.
23. We oppose the use of land, sea, air and outer space in nuclear experiments, nuclear
waste disposal and other military actions which harm the environment.
24. We insist that all military-related activities be subject to all the judicial,
legislative and regulatory processes of civil society.
25. We will support the development of a permanent Environmental Crisis Response Center
such as the proposed Green Cross, to coordinate international responses to ecological
disasters, including war.
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