10 Commitments

Go to www.geneva2000.org

Poverty Eradication (Commitment 2 from Copenhagen):

Eradicate absolute poverty by a target date to be set by each country

Download the package of UN documents on poverty 
TXT file (230 KB), ZIP file (63 KB)

International Agreements

UN Agencies & 
Intergov. Bodies reports

NGOs

Women

Youth

Indigenous Peoples

Religious Communities

Business & Industry

Trade Unions

Research, Education

Governments

Local Authorities

 

International Agreements

Commitment 2 from the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development

World Summit on Social Development, Copenhagen 1995
Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development
Chapter II: Eradication of Poverty

UN Commission on Social Development
1996 Chapter I.C: Women and Poverty
        Chapter III: Strategies and Actions for eradication of poverty

Agenda 21, Rio 1992
Chapter 3: Combating Poverty

Earth Summit II, 1997
Chapter 3.A Integration of economic, social and environmental objectives
Chapter 3.B: Sectors + Issues, Par.62 (Women + Land+ Poverty)

Population Summit / ICPD, Cairo 1994
Chapter 3. Section B and Section C
(population, environment, growth, poverty, participation + women)

Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing 1995
Chapter 1 IV A: Women and Poverty

Habitat II, Istanbul 1996
Chapter IV. C.3: Social development (eradication of poverty, creation of productive employment and social integration)


UN Commissions

UN Commission on the Status of Women
1993 Chapter I.C: R 37/8: Women in Extreme Poverty
1996 Chapter I.C: Resolution 40/9: Objectives and Action in the Critical Area of Poverty

 

UN Agencies & Intergovernmental Bodies reports    [ Up ]

Human Development Report 1997: Eradication of Poverty

http://www.undp.org/hdro/97.htm

Eradicating poverty everywhere is more than a moral imperative - it is a practical possibility. That is the most important message of the Human Development Report 1997. The world has the resources and the know-how to create a poverty-free world in less than a generation.
The Report focuses not just on poverty of incomes but on poverty from a human development perspective - poverty as a denial of choices and opportunities for living a tolerable life. The strategies proposed in the Report go beyond income redistribution - encompassing action in the critical areas of gender equality, pro-poor growth, globalization and the democratic governance of development.

Main features of the Report

  • A new concept and measurement of poverty, including the new "Human Poverty Index", or HPI. This index provides a country-by-country analysis that goes beyond the conventional yardstick of income, measuring deprivation in longevity, education and economic provisionings.
  • A global view of poverty trends providing data on the impressive achievements in poverty eradication and an analysis of some distressing setbacks.
  • A thought-provoking analysis of the impact of economic globalization on poor countries and poor people.
  • A discussion on the politics of poverty and the need to create a democratic space for partnerships between government, civil society and the private sector, all joining together to fight poverty.
  • A six point action agenda, starting with empowerment of the poor by building the assets of poor communities and poor people based on gender equality, pro-poor growth and people-friendly markets, demanding better management of globalization, and stronger national and global commitments for poverty eradication.

 

 

World Development Report on Poverty 2000/2001 http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/debate.html
In September 2000 the World Bank will publish its once-in-a-decade World Development Report on poverty. The Bank is widely circulating a draft WDR. There is a global on-line discussion of the draft from 21st February to 31st March. Participation is your opportunity to voice comments on the draft and potentially influence the final report.

http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/wdrpoverty/
find more information on  the World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty

UNDP Poverty Report 2000 - Overcoming Human Poverty (Draft Executive Summary)
UNDP
(More info: www.undp.org/teams)

 

FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

http://www.fao.org/news/1999/991004-e.htm
To fight world hunger, policy-makers, the public and the media need to know precisely who is hungry and why. This is the information contained in FAO's latest publication, "The State of Food Insecurity in the World 1999" (SOFI). SOFI provides detailed data on the number of people facing hunger by region and looks at a broad range of factors that contribute to food insecurity

 

World Bank - Sustainable Banking with the Poor (SBP)

http://www-esd.worldbank.org/html/esd/agr/sbp/step0.htm
Project aiming to help improve the ability of donors, governments, and practitioners to build sustainable financial institutions that effectively reach the poor. SBP is a collaborative effort of the World Bank, Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Norway, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), and the Ford Foundation.
This site has information on project, abstracts of working papers (some full text), directory of some 1000 microfinance institutions worldwide (dating from 1995) plus a lengthy inventory analysing this data and giving an overview of microfinance practices worldwide.

 

UNDP 
Sustainable Livelihoods (SL)

http://www.undp.org/sl/
Building on the Wealth of the Poor
Global programme element aiming to refine the SL concept, building electronic information and resource networks, and piloting new SL initiatives. Regional and country programmes are addressing specific country priorities in the development, empowerment and activation of human resources, especially those living in poverty.
This site has information on the programme and full text background papers.

 

UNDP
Towards the Elimination of Poverty

 

http://www.undp.org/poverty
Visit this site for sections on
  • People-centered budgets
  • Poverty Reduction Strategies
  • Poverty & Gender
  • Income Inequality & Poverty Reduction
  • Resource Center
UNDP and Poverty Eradication

http://www.undp.org/sl/about_SEPED/about_undp.htm
The Poverty Mandate

 

UNDP
Social Development & Poverty Elimination Division

 

http://www.undp.org/poverty/initiatives/wider/wiid.htm
WIID World Income Inequality Database
UNU/WIDER and UNDP/SEPED, in partnership with SIDA, have conducted an important research project entitled "Rising Income Inequality and Poverty Reduction: Are They Compatible?" The project aims at critically evaluting different methods of measuring income inequality, understanding the dynamics of the relationship between economic growth, poverty alleviation, and income inequality. It will produce empirical and policy studies addressing the poverty policy implications of rising inequalities observed in most countries in the last two decades. An important component of this project is the UNU/WIDER -UNDP World Income Inequality Database (WIID).
UNDP
Debt Relief & Poverty Reduction Strategies

http://www.undp.org/poverty/initiatives/prs/
UNDP

TEAMS TO END POVERTY

 

http://www.undp.org/teams/english/abouteam.htm
A global communication and action oriented campaign against poverty
For the first time ever, the world has the wealth, the technology and the know how to eliminate poverty and social exclusion. Yet, poverty entraps the lives of 1.3 billion people around the globe and kills a child every 3 seconds.
The United Nations proclaimed 1997-2006 "Decade for the Eradication of Poverty". To turn that period into one of unprecedented progress, UNDP, the leading agency in the UN system for development co-operation, is launching a global mobilisation campaign and calls upon individuals, institutions, and private as well as public entities to each do their share of the collective effort required.
The campaign will explain that poverty can be overcome and that everyone can contribute to ending it. It is neither a fund-raising campaign nor does it seek to promote specific institutions or people. It is a call for concrete actions in every field and at every level. Its core message will be: "wherever you live, whoever you are, and whatever you already do, there is always something more you can do to make poverty decline".

 

Netaid http://www.netaid.org
Netaid is a new, long-term effort to use the unique networking capabilities of the Internet to promote development and alleviate extreme poverty across the world. The Netaid Foundation serves as a global exchange point to link people to successful agents and agencies of change. Netaid's mission is to use the powers of the Internet to help the millions of men, women, and children who live on the edge of survival.
Our goal is to connect all those who share these common values to promote the useful exchange of ideas, challenges, resources, and success stories. Netaid works to:
  • Facilitate community building, direct communications, and coordination among the millions of people dedicated to these aims.
  • Act as a one-stop resource for people interested in making a commitment to change.
  • Build new on-line tools to promote exchanges of ideas and success stories.
  • Help our developing country partners get access to and learn to utilize new technologies.
  • Issue periodic calls to action on items of urgency and focus attention on what works.
Netaid
Internet and Poverty
http://app.netaid.org/WhatWorks/1.0.html?pillar_id=8

World Wide Web Helps War on Poverty

World Bank - Poverty Lines

http://www.worldbank.org/html/prdph/lsms/research/povline/plhome.html
Poverty Lines is a brief, two-page newsletter summarising World Bank research on poverty. Mostly summaries of work appearing as LSMS working papers. Available in print and on the World Bank www site. While the working papers summarized may be technical in presentation and require training in economic theory or statistics to read, the summaries provided by Poverty Lines are written for readers who may not have this training.

 

World Bank - Development Economics Vice President (DEC)

http://www.worldbank.org/knowledge/index.htm
World Bank - Development Economics Vice President (DEC)
Offering a range of analytical and training activities with a focus on: causes/consequences of long term growth; redefining the role of the state; aid effectiveness; global integration.
DEC is organisationally responsible for a number of units/programmes including the Economic Development Institute (EDI), International Economics Department (IEC), Policy Research Department (PRD), Research Advisory Staff (RAD) and World Development Report (WDR): see separate entries for each of these.
This site organises information from all DEC programmes on a thematic and organisational basis, including a separate section on learning resources aimed at teachers and trainers.

 

Enterprise and Cooperative Development  Social Finance Unit, ILO http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/finance/
Section of ILO focusing on the social dimension of finance, particularly microfinance for poverty alleviation, employment and social integration.
This site offers information on activities and an archive of full text ILO documents on the issue.

 

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

http://www.ifad.org/ifadeval/public_html/
:International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD see separate entry) is a UN agency providing loans and grants for rural poverty alleviation in developing countries.

 

Micro Impacts of Macroeconomic and Adjustment Policies (MIMAP) Programme

http://www.idrc.ca/mimap/
MIMAP is a Program Initiative of the International Development Research Centre (Ottawa) supporting interdisciplinary research in developing countries in order to enhance capacity to analyse and create alternate policies that achieve the goals of economic stabilization and adjustment while reducing their impact on vulnerable groups

 

World Bank - Partnerships for Poverty Reduction

http://www1.worldbank.org/ppr/
Documentation and support for initiatives on poverty reduction for the Latin American and Caribbean region
Programme sponsored by the Economic Development Institute (EDI) at the World Bank, UNDP and the Interamerican Foundation (IAF).
WWW site includes:
(a) Database of poverty related projects in Latin America and Caribbean. Some include summaries, and some are more extended case studies
(b) Bulletin boards
(c) Newsletter

 

The World Bank, Poverty Net

http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/index.htm
Website designed to serve a range of users by providing both broad introductions to key issues as well as more detailed analysis and data for researchers and practitioners.
This site includes full text materials, bibliographical references, newsletter, job announcements, statistical data.

 

Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP)

http://www.cgap.org/
Multi-donor organisation, coordinated by the World Bank. Aims to address poverty through the support of micro-finance programmes.
This site has information on the programme, full text of short-note series (Focus), occasional papers and newsletter. CGAP's goal is to significantly expand very poor people’s access to quality financial services from sustainable or potentially sustainable microfinance institutions

 

UNDP Social Development and Poverty Elimination Programme (SEPED) http://www.undp.org/seped/index.htm
 Aims at providing catalytic support to country anti-poverty efforts by: (1) raising public awareness of the extent, distribution and causes of poverty, and creating political space for a debate on national development priorities; (2) strengthening the capacity of government agencies and civil society to gather, analyze and monitor social indicators and to review public policies, budgets and programmes that impact on people's well-being; (3) defining national goals and targets for the reduction of overall poverty and the elimination of extreme poverty; (4) improving coordination among agencies dealing with social and economic policy; and (5) building a consensus among public, private and civil society actors on the most effective means to tackle poverty in their country.
WWW site has information on programme, selection of full text publications.

 

IFAD
Conference on Hunger & Poverty
http://www.ifad.org/hunger.html
The Conference on Hunger and Poverty was held in Brussels on 20-21 November 1995. The focus was on the civil society, its experiences and potential in fighting hunger and poverty. Participants examined the possibilities of forming a coalition to increase the ability and the capacity of organizations within the civil society to empower the poor and hungry, provide them with appropriate and meaningful technology, strengthen the coping strategies of vulnerable groups and provide ways and means by which the people and the local communities can reverse the degradation of their natural resource base.
Find Discussion papers on

 

NGO Documents    [ Up ]

Coalition for Global Solidarity and Social Development http://www.globalsolidarity.npaid.org/coalition.html
The Coalition is promoting grass-roots participation and involvement in the social summit and linking together groups and organisations working from around the world in a common, global initiative to raise understanding and awareness of the principles and aims of the summit, and to strengthen global solidarity, cooperation, and coordination. 

http://www.globalsolidarity.npaid.org/artpoverty.html
Articles on poverty

 

SocialWatch

http://www.socwatch.org/
go to Thematic Reports: Poverty Eradication

International Institute on Environment and Development (IIED)

 

http://www.oneworld.org/iied/human/pubs_pov.html
List of Publications on urban poverty reduction

Pratt Institute Center for Community and Environmental Development

http://www.picced.org/advocacy/poverty.htm
Urban Poverty - The Global Phenomenon of Poverty and Social Marginalization in our Cities: Facts and Strategies

 

Non-Governmental Organization Alternative Treaties at the Global Forum, Rio 1992

 

Treaty 18. Poverty Treaty (Preamble ; women)

List of Publications on urban poverty reduction

 

http://www.oneworld.org/iied/human/pubs_pov.html

Euforic - 
Europe's Forum on International Cooperation 
http://www.euforic.org/
A focal point on the Internet and beyond for communities involved in Europe's international cooperation. More and more organisations use Euforic as the platform for debating topical issues and highlighting their latest information. It is a powerful answer to the need for more transparency on Europe's international cooperation, as Euforic improves the access to scattered information on the Internet, and brings people together.

 

Third World Network http://www.twnside.org.sg/crisis.htm
Papers on Global Financial and Economic crisis
Eurostep

http://www.oneworld.org/eurostep/
a network of 22 major development NGOs from 15 European countries, established in 1990 to co-ordinate activities of its members at the European level. Collectively they work in around 100 countries. Its two principal aims are first to influence official development co-operation policies of multilateral institution, and in particular those of the European Union; and secondly to improve the quality and effectiveness of initiatives taken by NGOs in support of people centred development. Objectives:
- Poverty eradication to be the main objective in all EU co-operation policies. 
- Increased priority should be given to basic social services, including the implementation of the 20/20 initiative and basic education. 
- Mainstreaming gender equality, and a rights and sustainability approach in all EU policies and programmes.

 

OneWorld Directory http://www.oneworld.org/themes/topic/index.html?doc_url=topic_44_1.shtml
The OneWorld database contains tens of thousands of documents on poverty from the partners' websites.

 

World Alliance of Cities Against Poverty
WACAP

 

http://www.wacap-forum.ch/
Geneva will host the second Forum of the World Alliance of Cities Against Poverty (WACAP) from 3 to 5 April 2000.
Jointly organised by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the City of Geneva, this second forum will bring together some 400 participants representing cities "from all the continents", as well as non governmental organisations and associations, gathered to discuss the implementation of effective measures to eradicate poverty in cities. Its aim is to enhance decentralised cooperation and cities' partnership with States and civil society so as to increase the effectiveness of the fight against poverty.
In the course of three days participants in the Geneva Forum will share their experience in the field of the eradication of poverty. The issues under discussion will focus on decentralisation, development and cooperation. The plenary session will present these issues in the light of local financial resources. Four workshops will deal with urban governance, pioneering social programmes, international cooperation between cities and the city in the new millennium.

 

World Directory of Development Organisations http://www.coop4coop.org
Hundreds of links.
The aim of this project is to promote mutual cooperation, dissemination of data and exchange of experiences among organizations, associations and informal groups whose activity is development related. The directory contains basic information on known organizations - mainly NGOs - and their activities for development.

 

Women    [ Up ]

 

Youth    [ Up ]

 

Indigenous Peoples    [ Up ]

 

Religious Communities    [ Up ]

Baha'i International Community (BIC) http://www.bic-un.bahai.org/i-e-env.htm
Baha'i Statements on Environment and Development
http://www.bahai.org/bworld/frame.cfm?token=233697&CL=1
The Baha'i World - Go to 'Social Action', click on 'Social and Economic Development'

 

 

Business & Industry    [ Up ]

Asian Development Bank

http://www.adb.org/Work/Policies/Poverty_Reduction/
The Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy
Policy Papers

 

 

Trade Unions    [ Up ]

World Directory of Trade Unions http://www.cf.ac.uk/ccin/union/links.html
there are over 1500 links to international union organisations, national unions, locals and union resource sites in every continent.
Visit this site for more information on:
- Trade Union Resources on the Web
- Labour Movement News
- Schedule of Conferences, etc. 

 

 

Research, Education    [ Up ]

 

Genevalink http://www.genevalink.org/
The Social Progress Innovation Network 
  • creates and initiates projects such as workshops and exhibitions at Geneva 2000
  • receives, selects and organises information pertaining to successful social experiments in an open dialogue with members.
  • will be an open electronic forum in Geneva.
  • produces news reports on latest experiences in social development.
  • serves as a relay from network members to the institutional actors and the media.
  • will prepare exclusive reports on the Geneva 2000 Forum and the Special Session
  • forms a laboratory for research on key issues.
  • The Lab will elaborate the document entitled «Social Development in the New Millennium», for the June Summit.
  • After the Special Session, the Lab may enlarge its membership worldwide to constitute a new thinktank for ideas on social progress.
ELDIS

http://nt1.ids.ac.uk/eldis/HOT/poverty.htm#orgs
The aim of this guide is to present a selection of the most recent research.
Sections::

  • complete listing (still arranged by date!)
  • list of major poverty research organisations
  • country profiles on poverty
Global Development Network (GDN) http://www.gdnet.org
The GDN aims to enhance the quality and availability of policy-oriented research and strengthen the institutions which undertake this work. The GDN offers tools, services and networking opportunities to help these institutions and their members join together to fight poverty. The goal of the GDN is to support and link research and policy institutes involved in the field of development. The GDN will aim to support the generation and sharing of knowledge for development and to help bridge the gap between the development of ideas and their practical implementation. Achieving these goals involves strengthening the capacity of research and policy institutions to undertake high-quality, policy-relevant research and to move research results into the policy debates, at both national and global levels.
Visit this site for * Global Development Network Awards Competition 
                          (Deadline June 2000)
                        * Training Courses
                        * Related Global Initiatives 
                        * and more
Poverty Research Unit, Sussex (PRUS)

http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/CDE/research/poverty.html
Multidisciplinary, cross-campus research centre based at the University of Sussex undertaking research on poverty and its reduction in both developing and industrialised countries.
Publications include a quarterly printed newsletter (available on WWW site) and working paper series.

 

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP)

http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/aboutirp.htm
The Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan, university-based research center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison focusing on the causes and consequences of poverty and social inequality in the USA. This site has information on programmes and links to other (mostly US related) sites.

 

Institute of Development Studies (IDS)

http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/research/pov.html
a national centre for research and teaching on development. It was established in 1966 and is an international authority in the field.

 

Center for Analysis of Social Exclusion (CASE)

http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/case/
Research centre, located at London Scholl of Economics (LSE) , London, focusing on the empirical analysis of three of the principal dimensions of social exclusion: the economy and incomes; families and family change; and communities and neighborhoods. It also examines the implications of developments in these areas for society as a whole, and the political and the philosophical content of the concepts of exclusion and inclusion. Its aim is to understand the dynamic processes at work within it areas of study and to investigate the individual characteristics and social institutions which prevent exclusion, and promote recovery, regeneration and inclusion.
Research is both conceptual and empirical (with a primary focus on the UK, but has included work on East Asia)
This site includes outlines of research programmes, full text of papers from their CASE briefs and CASE papers series.

 

Comparative Research Programme on Poverty CROP)

http://www.crop.org
CROP, is a world-wide network of researchers and experts on poverty. The aim of the Programme is to establish an arena for interdisciplinary and comparative research on poverty in developed and developing countries. CROP organises regional workshops, symposia and international conferences, promotes joint research projects and publications, linking poverty researchers and disseminating information about poverty research. Publishers of Poverty: A Global Review. Handbook on International Poverty Research, a report on poverty and poverty research in different regions of the world. Quarterly newsletter contains information about poverty research, CROP workshops etc.

 

 

 

Governments   [ Up ]

 

UK Government - DfID

http://www.dfid.gov.uk/public/what/what_frame.html
The 1997 White Paper, 'Eliminating World Poverty: A Challenge for the 21st Century', is published online in full in English and French, in text and PDF versions.


http://www.dfid.gov.uk/public/what/wp2_outline.html
Globalisation and Development
Outline of a new White Paper on International Development (with a specific focus on the changes resulting from globalisation and the opportunities and challenges this presents for faster progress in systematically reducing poverty and promoting sustainable development in the poorest countries). 
DFID welcomes ideas from the wider public within and outside the UK on these important questions (comments should be sent by 31 May 2000). 

 

Micro Enterprise Innovation Project (MIP), USAID

http://www.mip.org/
MIP's primary objective is to provide microentrepreneurs, particularly women and the very poor, with greater and more reliable access to financial and nonfinancial services needed to improve enterprise performance and household income. MIP's an initiative to support technical and financial assistance, research and training on best practices in microenterprise development and finance
Each individual component of MIP is designed to increase the capacity, outreach and scale of the international and indigenous organizations providing services to the microenterprise sector.

 

Poverty Reduction Project

http://www.gtz.de/forum_armut
Project funded by German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ: Bundesministerium fuer wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung). Aims to gather together and improve the most effective methods, instruments and approaches to poverty reduction, and then pass them on - reworked and streamlined - for use in practical project work. Works jointly with as many German Development cooperation organizations as possible - and with their partners.

 

 

Local Authorities    [ Up ]

 

Descriptions have been taken and adapted from the web-sites linked to.

 

Commitment 2: Poverty Eradication    [ Up ]

We commit ourselves to the goal of eradicating poverty in the world, through decisive national actions and international cooperation, as an ethical, social, political and economic imperative of humankind.

To this end, at the national level, in partnership with all actors of civil society and in the context of a multidimensional and integrated approach, we will:

(a) Formulate or strengthen, as a matter of urgency, and preferably by the year 1996, the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty, 9/ national policies and strategies geared to substantially reducing overall poverty in the shortest possible time, reducing inequalities and eradicating absolute poverty by a target date to be specified by each country in its national context;

(b) Focus our efforts and policies to address the root causes of poverty and to provide for the basic needs of all. These efforts should include the elimination of hunger and malnutrition; the provision of food security, education, employment and livelihood, primary health-care services including reproductive health care, safe drinking water and sanitation, and adequate shelter; and participation in social and cultural life. Special priority will be given to the needs and rights of women and children, who often bear the greatest burden of poverty, and to the needs of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups and persons;

(c) Ensure that people living in poverty have access to productive resources, including credit, land, education and training, technology, knowledge and information, as well as to public services, and participate in decision-making on a policy and regulatory environment that would enable them to benefit from expanding employment and economic opportunities;

(d) Develop and implement policies to ensure that all people have adequate economic and social protection during unemployment, ill health, maternity, child-rearing, widowhood, disability and old age;

(e) Ensure that national budgets and policies are oriented, as necessary, to meeting basic needs, reducing inequalities and targeting poverty, as a strategic objective;

(f) Seek to reduce inequalities, increase opportunities and access to resources and income, and remove any political, legal, economic and social factors and constraints that foster and sustain inequality.

At the international level, we will:

(g) Strive to ensure that the international community and international organizations, particularly the multilateral financial institutions, assist developing countries and all countries in need in their efforts to achieve our overall goal of eradicating poverty and ensuring basic social protection;

(h) Encourage all international donors and multilateral development banks to support policies and programmes for the attainment, in a sustained manner, of the specific efforts of the developing countries and all countries in need relating to people-centred sustainable development and to meeting basic needs for all; to assess their existing programmes in consultation with the concerned developing countries to ensure the achievement of the agreed programme objectives; and to seek to ensure that their own policies and programmes will advance the attainment of agreed development goals that focus on meeting basic needs for all and eradicating absolute poverty. Efforts should be made to ensure that participation by the people concerned is an integral part of such programmes;

(i) Focus attention on and support the special needs of countries and regions in which there are substantial concentrations of people living in poverty, in particular in South Asia, and which therefore face serious difficulties in achieving social and economic development.

    [ Up ]

 

Go to UNED-UK Home Page