10 Commitments

Go to www.geneva2000.org

Gender Equity (Commitment 5 from Copenhagen):

Achieve equality and equity between women and men

Download the package of UN documents on gender equity 
TXT file (   KB), ZIP file (   KB)

International Agreements

UN Agencies & Intergov. Bodies reports

NGOs

Women

Youth

Indigenous Peoples

Religious Communities

Business & Industry

Trade Unions

Research, Education

Governments

Local Authorities

 

International Agreements

Commitment 5 from the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development

 

World Summit on Social Development, Copenhagen 1992

Chapter I : An Enabling Environment for Social Development, Point 7

 

Chapter II : Eradication of Poverty

D. Enhanced social protection and reduced vulnerability, point 38 (j)

Chapter IV : Social Integration, point 69, 73 (c)

 

Earth Summit, 1992

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Principle 20

 

Agenda 21

Section I. Social and Economic Dimensions

Chapter 3. Combating Poverty, point 3.6

Chapter 4. Changing Consumption Patterns

B. Developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in unsustainable consumption patterns, Point 4.27


Chapter 5. Demographic Dynamics and Sustainability

A. Developing and disseminating knowledge concerning the links between demographic trends and factors and sustainable development


Chapter 7. Promoting Sustainable Human Settlement Development

H. Promoting human resource development and capacity-building for human settlements development, point 7.77, (ii,iii)

Section III. Strengthening the Role of Major Groups

Chapter 24. Global Action for Women Towards Sustainable and Equitable Development

 

Earth Summit II, 1997

Chapter 3. A. Integration of economic, social and environmental objectives, Point 24 (b)

Chapter 3. B. Sectors and issues, Point 66 (i)

 

Human Rights Summit

World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna 1993

Chapter II. B. Equality, dignity and tolerance

 

Human Rights Review

Follow-up to the World Conference on Human Rights, New York 1998

VI. Equal status and human rights of women

 

Population Summit / ICPD, Cairo 1994

Chapter 4 : Gender Equality, Equity and Empowerment of Women

 

3rd World Conference on Women, Nairobi 1985

 

Habitat II Conference, Istanbul 1996

Chapter II, sections I & II

Chapter III, Commitments

D. Gender Equality

 

UN Commissions

UN Commission on the Status of Women

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

 

Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

 

 

UN Agencies & Intergovernmental Bodies reports

Human Development Report 1995

 

http://www.undp.org/hdro/95.htm

GENDER AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Human Development, If not engendered, is endangered. That is the simple but far- reaching message of Human Development Report 1995. The Report analyses the progress made in reducing gender disparities in the past few decades, highlights the wide and persistent gap between women's expanding capabilities and limited opportunities, introduces two new measures for ranking countries on a global scale by their performance in gender equality, analyses the under-
valuation and non-recognition of women's work and offers a five-point strategy for equalising gender opportunities in the decade ahead. An innovative feature of this year's Report is the design of two new composite indices - the gender related development index (GDI) and the gender empowerment measure (GEM), both of which rank countries on a global scale of gender equality. The GDI captures gender inequality in human capabilities, and the GEM reflects inequalities in key areas of political and economic participation and decision-making. The Report also brings together, for the first time, considerable data from a sample of countries on the contributions of women and men to paid and unpaid work. The Report concludes that that the unvalued contribution of women is so large that any reasonable valuation would lead to a fundamental change in the premises on which today's economic, social and political structures are founded.

 

UNDP http://www.undp.org/poverty/initiatives/genpov.htm
SEPED Poverty & Gender Research Programmes and Initiatives

 

 

NGO Documents

NGO Copenhagen Alternative Declaration
March 1995

http://www.traverse.com/nonprof/center/synapse31/wssdalt.html
This Declaration builds upon efforts emanating from the NGO Development Caucus during the Social Summit preparatory meetings, the Oslo Fjord Declaration, and other national and international citizens' initiatives.

 

Amnesty International http://www.amnesty.org/
Amnesty International is a worldwide campaigning movement that works to promote all the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international standards. In particular, Amnesty International campaigns to free all prisoners of conscience; ensure fair and prompt trials for political prisoners; abolish the death penalty, torture and other cruel treatment of prisoners; end political killings and "disappearances"; and oppose human rights abuses by opposition groups.
Amnesty International has around a million members and supporters in 162 countries and territories. Activities range from public demonstrations to letter-writing, from human rights education to fundraising concerts, from individual appeals on a particular case to global campaigns on a particular issue.

Amnesty International's newly launched report focuses on numerous feminist issues including the Taliban's continuing barbarisms, "honour killings", the trafficking of women and girls, "custodial" rape/torture and military violence against women and children.

 

The Center of Concern http://www.coc.org/coc/
The Center of Concern works with international networks promoting social analysis, theological reflection, policy analysis, political advocacy, research and public education on issues of global development, peace and social justice.

 

Enda-Synfev (Synergie Genre et Developpement, Environment et Developpement du Tiers Monde) http://www.enda.sn/synfev/synfev.htm
ENDA Third World is an international NGO based in Dakar, Senegal that focuses on sustainable development in Africa and the developing world. Membership with the APC is held by their Networking Department. Since the early 1990s, this extended IT department has provided connectivity to the larger organization, its projects and NGO partners in Senegal and other francophone West African countries. Between 1992 and 1996 ENDA acted as a local hub for e-mail, which was networked over phone lines and Fidonet to GreenNet in the UK. By 1996 ENDA began to provide full Internet services including e-mail, mailing lists, and WWW hosting.

 

Third World Network http://www.twnside.org.sg/women.htm
Papers on Women's Rights & Gender Issues with regards to globalisation, poverty, economic issues, global institutions etc.

 

 

Women

 

SID-Women in Development (SID-WID)

http://www.sidint.org/sid-wid/index.htm
The SID-Women in Development (SID-WID) network is an energetic group of SID members and associates from civil society, the donor community, academia and activists from the North, South and East.

 

Linking up: Reviews +5

 

http://www.sidint.org/sid-wid/review5.htm
SID-WID wishes to play an active role in the Review process and, in collaboration with Vrouwenberaad, a Dutch network of gender experts working on international cooperation and WIDE, Women in Development Europe, a European network working in gender issues, has been asked to co-organise WIDE Annual Conference "Linking up: Reviews+5. Cairo, Copenhagen and Beijing towards 2000" to be held in The Netherlands on 28-29 May, 1999.

 

International Women's Tribune Center- New York, USA

 

http://www.womenink.org/iwtc.html
The International Women's Tribune Centre (IWTC) is an international non-governmental organization set up in response to demands for information and resources from many of the more than 8,000 women who participated in the United Nations International Women's Year (IWY) World Conference and the non-governmental IWY Tribune in Mexico City, 1975. For the last 20 years, IWTC has played an important role as a major information, education, communication, networking, technical assistance and training resource for women worldwide. Today, IWTC continues as a networking and information clearinghouse for some 25,000 women and women's groups in Africa, Asia/Pacific, Latin America/Caribbean and the Middle East.

AWID (The Association for Women in Development) http://www.awid.org/
The Association for Women in Development (AWID) is a dynamic international membership organization committed to gender equality and a just and sustainable development process. Through AWID membership, scholars, practitioners, and policymakers from around the world discuss and share ideas concerning development strategies and programs. AWID provides a space for open, contentious, positive, and diverse debate on current gender and development and women's human rights issues. AWID facilitates a three-way exchange or "trialogue" among scholars, practitioners and policymakers in order to develop effective and transformative approaches for improving the lives of women and girls worldwide.

APC-Africa-Women

 

http://www.apc.org/english/about/apcafrica/apcwomen.htm
The Africa regional programme of APC's Women's Networking Support Programme (APC WNSP) APC-Africa-Women gathers and works together with women and women's organizations in Africa and all over the world, focusing on African women's empowerment through Information Facilitation, Regional Support, Policy and Advocacy, Training and Research in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).
The work of APC-Africa-Women is featured on the these Websites:
Flame/Flamme - A network of African sisters online committed to strengthening the capacity of women through the use of ICTs to lobby, advocate and participate in the Beijing +5 process regionally and globally. This is a bilingual English/French resource.
Women'sNet, South Africa
Famafrique - An information and resource space for French speaking African Women working for sustainable development.

 

Abantu http://www.abantu.org
a non-governmental development organisation founded in 1991 by African women for the purpose of harnessing resources to benefit of African people. The main focus of the work is on training, providing information and advice on mobilising resources towards sustainable development in Africa. The webpage includes a programme introduction, publications, GAP matters etc.

 

The African Gender Institute (AGI), South Africa http://www.uct.ac.za/org/agi/
The AGI's Mission is to build intellectual capacity and establishing an African resource dedicated to strengthening and advancing the work of intellectuals, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners committed to the attainment of gender equity. The website provides information about programmes and projects, newsletters, papers and reports and current AGI events.

 

African Women Global Network (AWOGNet), USA, http://www.osu.edu/org/awognet/main.html
AWOGNet is concerned with networking of women’s organisations in Africa concerned with the improvement of living conditions of women and children. African Women Global Network (AWOGNet) is a global organization that networks all men and women, organizations, institutions and indigenous national organizations within Africa, whose activities are targeted towards the improvement of the living conditions of women and children in Africa.

 

ALAI (Agencia Latinoamericana de Información), Ecuador

 

http://www.ecuanex.apc.org./alai/comgenen.html
a communication initiative for feminist movements in Latin America and the Caribbean. Their women's program actively promotes the right to communicate, and a gender focus in communication. ALAI drew up proposals on communications for the 4th World Conference on Women and, in concertation with other organizations, contributed to the chapter on Women and the Media of the Beijing Platform for Action. The website gathers documentary material on these issues, in Spanish, English and French.

 

Association for Progressive Communications (APC), UK http://www.apc.org/apcwomen/
Women’s Networking Support Programme 
a global computer network for social change. It facilitates training and information and hosts a list of around 150 women’s initiatives working with the Net. The Association for Progressive Communications (APC) is the world’s most extensive network of Internet providers dedicated to serving non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and citizen activists. APC member networks offer a wide range of services and support to link people, issues, resources and tools for action.

 

AVIVA, UK, http://www.aviva.org/
FREE Political ‘Web-zine’, which comes out monthly, covering women’s news globally, including action campaigns. It offers listings of 1000s of Women’s: Groups/ Courses/ Resources/ Events and more.

 

Beijing '95

 

IGC pages on the Beijing process.
Canadian Women’s Health Network, http://www.cwhn.ca/
Practical information about women’s health and advocacy for discriminated women through race, age, religion, language etc. The CWHN is committed to building regional and national links among organizations and individuals who care about women's health by, for example, providing easier access to health information, resources and research, promoting and developing links to information and action Networks and providing forums for critical debate.

 

Connected, Switzerland http://www.connected.org/index.html
General development page with a section on women and the Internet. The page offers a mailing list, press relations, various articles about topics and the Dialogue Handbook which provide logistical support to groups of citizens who wish to use the Internet.

 

The European Women's Lobby (EWL) http://www.womenlobby.org
The largest co-ordinating body of national and European non-governmental women's organisations in the European Union, with over 2,700 member associations in the 15 Member States. The EWL's goal is to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and to serve as a link between political decision-makers and women's organisations, who represent the majority in civil society. The website is to providing news, information about projects and useful links to other webpages.

 

Feminist Majority Foundation (U.S.), USA http://www.feminist.org/
Fosters world-wide political campaigns, for instance about the situation in Afghanistan or ‘women’s budgets’. Provides valuable links to other organisations, feminist news, a feminist online store, a feminist research center events and more.

 

FEMNET, Kenya http://www.africaonline.co.ke/femnet/index.html
Networking of African women’s organisation to monitor Beijing follow-up in development practice - to strengthen the role and contribution of African NGOs concerned with women's development, to create a channel through which these NGOs can reach each other and share ideas, knowledge and experiences, to maintain close working relationships and foster partnership directly or indirectly with governments, UN agencies, the OAU and other bodies and to publicize the Network's activities and services through publications, awards, exhibitions and the mass media.

 

Gender, Science and Development Program (GSD) http://www.ifias.ca/gsd/gsdinfo.html
International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Study, engages in research and facilitates networking around selected international gender, science and technology issues. The site offers publications and an international Gender, Science and Technology Information Map.

 

GILC News Alert http://www.gilc.org/
The newsletter of the Global Internet Liberty Campaign, an international coalition of organizations working to protect and enhance online civil liberties and human rights. Organizations are invited to join GILC by contacting gilc@gilc.org.You may re-print or redistribute the GILC NEWS ALERT freely. To subscribe to the alert, please send an mail to gilc-announce@gilc.org with the following message in the body: subscribe gilc-announce.

 

The Global Fund for Women http://www.igc.apc.org/gfw
a non-endowed foundation and rely on the annual support of many generous individuals, foundations, and corporations. The fund makes grants to seed, support, and strengthen women's rights groups around the world. One can find network news, programs and links such as "Feminist Resources" on the webpage.

 

The GREAT Network Archives http://www.uea.ac.uk/dev/greatnet/. 
The GREAT Network bridges the divides between Gender and Development researchers and development practitioners, and between individuals at dispersed institutions; disseminates research results to development agencies and academics; informs subscribers of relevant debates and information on the Web; manages topical debates; keeps members up-to-date with job advertisements, journal and conference calls and so on.

 

Huairou Commission

 

http://www.sustainabledevelopment.org/blp/huairou.html

 

Institute for Democracy in South Africa (Idasa), South Africa,
http://www.idasa.org.za/bis/women.htm
General public interest organisation, involved in democratisation process in SA, hosts information of the ‘Women’s Budget Initiative’ (WBI). It offers publications, a political quarterly magazine (Siyaya), Idasa books and events.
International Information Centre and Archives for the Women’s Movement (IIAV), Netherlands

 

http://www.iiav.nl/
Women’s (not only!) academic resource centre, providing information on the position of women and women's studies. It offers a wide collection of books, periodicals, dossiers, archives and more.
International Center for Research on Women, USA
http://www.icrw.org/
a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting social and economic development, gender research and advocacy. It provides publications, development links, a grants progarm (PROWID) in partnership with CEDPA and more.
The Institute for Global Communications (IGC), USA http://www.igc.org  
IGC and its APC members have been the primary information and communications service provider at UN world conferences. IGC Internet offers a unique starting point for politically progressive individuals/organizations to explore the Internet. Also features automated web tools for publicizing events and calendars, action alerts and information about volunteering and employment in the progressive nonprofit sector. Offers Peacenet, Econet, Labornet and Womensnet.

 

IGC Womensnet

http://www.igc.org/igc/womensnet/
IGC's newest network. Support of women’s organisations world-wide by providing and adapting telecommunications. Information on women’s political activities.

 

International Women's Tribune Centre (IWTC) http://www.womenink.org/iwtc.html
an international non-governmental organization set up in response to demands for information and resources from many of the more than 8,000 women who participated in the United Nations International Women's Year (IWY) World Conference and the non-governmental IWY Tribune in Mexico City, 1975. They offer The Tribune, IWTC's newsletter on women and development issues, Global Faxnet/GlobalNet, Manuals and Community Action Guides, Occasional Bulletins, Conference Calendars and other Resources, Technical Assistance and Training and Posters, Postcards and Slide/Tape Sets.

 

WOMEN, INK http://www.womenink.org
a project of the International Women's Tribune Centre to market and distribute books on women and development worldwide. It includes 250+ titles from publishers all over the world, and is the exclusive distributor of publications from the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). The website features a catalogue of available books.

 

Latin American Network Information Center (LANIC), USA, http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/region/women/
affiliated with the Institute of Latin American Studies (ILAS) at the University of Texas at Austin. It facilitates access to Internet-based information on, from, or about Latin America and provides an academic database with section on women’s issues in Latin America Academic database with section on women’s issues in Latin America. LANIC's editorially reviewed directories contain over 12,000 unique URL's, one of the largest guides for Latin American content on the Internet.

 

Network of East-West Women (NEWW), FSU area, Russia

 

http://www.glasnet.ru/neww/. Provision of Internet training, networking, human rights advocacy in the FSU-area.
Once and Future Action Network (OFAN), Canada http://www.wigsat.org/ofan/ofan.html
an international consortium of gender, science and technology organisations which calls attention to women's contribution to people-centred and environmentally sustainable approaches to science and technology. The website provides the conference declaration, a framework for action and daily news reports and press releases.

 

OneWorld News Service - Gender

South Asian Women’s NETwork (SAWNET), Canada

 

http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/users/sawweb/sawnet/  
Network with associated mailing list, run by Asian women on a voluntary basis.

 

Synergy Gender and Development, Senegal

 

http://www.enda.sn/synfev/synfev.htm
African partner organisation to the APC Women’s Network Support Programme.

 

United Nations Environment and Development UK Committee (UNED-UK) http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/women/index.htm

Stakeholder Toolkit for Women
A web-site covering all UN Summit and Conferences since 1992. Providing UN documents, NGO documents, and tools like networking opportunities, links, schedules, etc.

 

United Kingdom Women's National Commission, WNC UK

 

http://www.thewnc.org.uk/
the official, independent, advisory body giving the views of women to the Government. It is the only organisation of this kind in the UK. It ensures that women's views are taken into account by the Government and are heard in public debate. On the website there is information on Beijing+5, UK links and world links to related websites and publications can be found.

 

Virtual Sisterhood http://www.igc.apc.org/vsister/vsister.html
a global women's electronic support network, is dedicated to strengthening and magnifying the impact of feminist organizing through promotion of electronic communications use within the global women's movement. The website provides an electronic conference and mailing list for women activists, a sampler of women's online resources, a global directory of women's organisations and electronic communication and more.

 

W.I.S.D.O.M. – Women’s Internet Site Development and On-line Mentoring, Australia

 

http://home.vicnet.net.au/~wisdom/  
Skill enhancement for women in the use of Internet resources.
Women in the Middle East

http://women3rdworld.miningco.com/msub4.htm
index of useful Net resources about women's economic, social and political situation in the Middle East (over 150 web sites).

 

WOMEN'S ACTION AGENDA 21

http://iisdl.iisd.ca/women/action21.htm
This site features the text of the Action Agenda of the World Women's Congress, from the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), presenting for a Healthy Planet held in Miami, Florida, November 8-12, 1991. This conference was in preparation for the Rio Conference in 1992. Includes actions on land and food security, environment, biodiversity and biotechnology. 

 

Women-Connect-Asia Website

www.women-connect-asia.com
a website for women in Asia that also provides a searchable database to help women in Asia and beyond to connect. The website offers women free registration and a listing for their company. 

 

Women's Environment and Development Organisation (WEDO) http://www.wedo.org
a global organization working to increase women's visibility, roles and leadership in public policy-making through peace, gender, human rights, environmental and economic justice campaigns; through advocacy nationally, regionally, at the United Nations and in international financial institutions; and through local actions.The website offers, for example, information about women and environment, women and the global economy as well as job opportunities and newsletters.

 

Wedo Primer Women & Trade

http://www.wedo.org/global/wedoprimer.htm
November 1999
A Gender Agenda for the World Trade Organization
1. Mandate inclusion of women and gender in economic decision-making and governance
2. Strengthen women's capacity to attain economic equity
3. Protect women's control over their health and safety
4. Prevent TNC exploitation of women's indigenous knowledge and plant genetic resources

 

Women's Human Rights Database Group: DIANA at the University of Toronto

 

http://www.law-lib.utoronto.ca/Diana/

 

Women's Feature Service, USA

http://www.igc.org/wfs/
a news-feature service that reports from 40 countries in all regions of the world. WFS's network of women journalists produces approximately 400 articles a year, written from a women's perspective, with a special focus on developing countries. The entire WFS feed of six features per week is available through an E-mail subscription. Every week all the WFS articles are compiled into a Weekly Digest and sent via e-mail (not a free service) to your Internet address. One current WFS article and summaries of all other WFS features are posted weekly in the conference "wfs.english" on the APC networks.

 

Women in Global Science and Technology (WIGSAT), Canada

http://www.wigsat.org/index.html
supports global networking on critical issues in science and technology for development. This includes women’s formal and nonformal science and technology practices around the world, for policy advocacy and action which promotes their S&T contributions to sustainable development. The website provides an International Bibliography on Gender, Science and Technology, publications, the Once and Future Action Network (OFAN) and more.

 

The Women Leaders’ Network (WLN)

 

http://www.bellanet.org/partners/wln/
Promotion of gender perspectives into APEC (Asia Pacific Cooperation)

 

Women’s Net, South Africa

http://www.womensnet.org.za  
Training programmes for South African women in the use of Internet resources, facilitation of access and practical information for women already using the Net. Also provides a large compilation of links.

 

Working Women’s Forum - India

http://www.workingwomensforum.org/workingwomensforum/index1.htm
initiated in 1978 with a membership of 800 women, Working Women's Forum (India) is a mass movement of over 4,50,000 poor women workers engaged in 167 different occupations spread over 15 cultural contexts organised into neighbourhood groups of 8 to 10 members. Reversing the oppressions of caste, class and gender, the WWF is a Counter Culture by the poor women of India.

 

Yokohama Women's Association for Communication & Networking, Japan

 

http://www.women.city.yokohama.jp/
Information for community practitioners in practical issues

 

Check the relevant online discussion groups / list servers

Youth

 

Indigenous Peoples

 

Religious Communities

Baha'i International Community (BIC) http://www.bic-un.bahai.org/i-e-wom.htm
Baha'i Statements on the Advancement on Women

 

BIC
The Baha'i World
http://www.bahai.org/bworld/frame.cfm?token=233697&CL=1
Go to Social Action, click on Advancement of Women
Visit this site for sections on:
- Towards the Goal of Full Partnership: One Hundred and Fifty Years of the Advancement of Women
- Bahá'í Women's Activities Around the World
- Bahá'í Participation at the Fourth World Conference on Women
- The Greatness Which Might Be Theirs
- Two Wings of a Bird: The Equality of Women and Men
- Creating Violence-Free Families
- The Family in a World Community
- Ending Violence against Women

 

 

Business & Industry

 

Trade Unions

World Confederation of Labor (WCL) http://www.cmt-wcl.org/en/index.html
The World Confederation of Labour (WCL) is an international trade union confederation uniting autonomous and democratic trade unions from 113 countries all over the world . Its head office is located in Brussels, Belgium, and it has over 26 million members, mainly from Third World countries. The past three years have been marked by the affiliation of mostly African and Central and Eastern European organisations. 
WCL has become a workers’ organisation that draws its inspiration from humanist, ethical and moral values and protects the interests of the workers, women and men alike, throughout the world. The WCL has also adopted an independent attitude towards governments, political parties, power blocs, religions and churches.

http://www.cmt-wcl.org/en/women.html
World Committee for Women Workers

 

World Directory of Trade Unions http://www.cf.ac.uk/ccin/union/links.html
there are over 1500 links to international union organisations, national unions, locals and union resource sites in every continent.
Visit this site for more information on:
- Trade Union Resources on the Web
- Labour Movement News
- Schedule of Conferences, etc. 

 

 

Research, Education

 

Governments

 

Local Authorities

 

Descriptions have been taken and adapted from the web-sites linked to.

 

 

Commitment 5: Gender Equity

We commit ourselves to promoting full respect for human dignity and to achieving equality and equity between women and men, and to recognizing and enhancing the participation and leadership roles of women in political, civil, economic, social and cultural life and in development.

To this end, at the national level, we will:

(a) Promote changes in attitudes, structures, policies, laws and practices in order to eliminate all obstacles to human dignity, equality and equity in the family and in society, and promote full and equal participation of urban and rural women and women with disabilities in social, economic and political life, including in the formulation, implementation and follow-up of public policies and programmes;

(b) Establish structures, policies, objectives and measurable goals to ensure gender balance and equity in decision-making processes at all levels, broaden women's political, economic, social and cultural opportunities and independence, and support the empowerment of women, including through their various organizations, especially those of indigenous women, those at the grass-roots level, and those of poverty-stricken communities, including through affirmative action, where necessary, and also through measures to integrate a gender perspective in the design and implementation of economic and social policies;

(c) Promote full and equal access of women to literacy, education and training, and remove all obstacles to their access to credit and other productive resources and to their ability to buy, hold and sell property and land equally with men;

(d) Take appropriate measures to ensure, on the basis of equality of men and women, universal access to the widest range of health-care services, including those relating to reproductive health care, consistent with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development; 5/

(e) Remove the remaining restrictions on women's rights to own land, inherit property or borrow money, and ensure women's equal right to work;

(f) Establish policies, objectives and goals that enhance the equality of status, welfare and opportunity of the girl child, especially in regard to health, nutrition, literacy and education, recognizing that gender discrimination starts at the earliest stages of life;

(g) Promote equal partnership between women and men in family and community life and society, emphasize the shared responsibility of men and women in the care of children and support for older family members, and emphasize men's shared responsibility and promote their active involvement in responsible parenthood and responsible sexual and reproductive behaviour;

(h) Take effective measures, including through the enactment and enforcement of laws, and implement policies to combat and eliminate all forms of discrimination, exploitation, abuse and violence against women and girl children, in accordance with relevant international instruments and declarations;

(i) Promote and protect the full and equal enjoyment by women of all human rights and fundamental freedoms;

(j) Formulate or strengthen policies and practices to ensure that women are enabled to participate fully in paid work and in employment through such measures as positive action, education, training, appropriate protection under labour legislation, and facilitating the provision of quality child care and other support services.

At the international level, we will:

(k) Promote and protect women's human rights and encourage the ratification of, if possible by the year 2000, the avoidance, as far as possible, of the resort to reservations to, and the implementation of the provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 10/ and other relevant instruments, as well as the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, 11/ the Geneva Declaration for Rural Women, 12/ and the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development;

(l) Give specific attention to the preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women, to be held at Beijing in September 1995, and to the implementation and follow-up of the conclusions of that Conference;

(m) Promote international cooperation to assist developing countries, at their request, in their efforts to achieve equality and equity and the empowerment of women;

(n) Devise suitable means to recognize and make visible the full extent of the work of women and all their contributions to the national economy, including contributions in the unremunerated and domestic sectors.

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