Transport Resources

Background Papers


UN Commission on Sustainable Development
Transport is considered in Agenda 21 in the context of several chapters, including, among others, Chapter 9 on Atmosphere and Chapter 7 on Human Settlements. In undertaking the five-year review of the implementation of Agenda 21 during its nineteenth Special Session in 1997, the General Assembly noted that, over the next twenty years, transportation is expected to be the major driving force behind a growing world demand for energy. It is the largest end-user of energy in developed countries and the fastest growing one in most developing countries. Current patterns of transportation are not sustainable and may compound both environmental and health problems.
There is, therefore, a need for action, ranging, inter alia, from the promotion of integrated transport policies and plans, the accelerated phase-out of leaded gasoline, the promotion of voluntary guidelines and the development of partnerships at the national level for strengthening transport infrastructure and developing innovative mass transport schemes.
Within the framework of the Commissionís multi-year programme of work, transport will be discussed by the Commission at its ninth session, in 2001.

Women, Transport, Energy and the Environment
Guest Editorial Maria J. Figueroa
Economic development requires increased access and mobility of people and goods. Increasing urbanization and industrialization both create great demands for transport services. The goal of transport development is to improve every individual's access and mobility potential in society.

Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP)

International Forum for Rural Transport and Development

International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI)
ICLEI's Sustainable Transportation Program
Supporting Sustainable Transportation at the Local Level

Public Transport Gender Audit (Research Report)
Kerry Hamilton, University of East London, Transport Studies (July 1999)

The Sustainable Transport Action Network for Asia and the Pacific (SUSTRAN network)
promotes and popularises people-centred, equitable and sustainable transport with a focus on Asia and the Pacific.
visit this website for an information "toolbox" with background information on sustainable transport issues:

11. Gender
Recent research has greatly improved understanding of gender issues in the rural transport context but so far there has been little research on the gender dimension in Asian urban transport. This is of vital relevance for poverty issues and must be quickly remedied, since women are estimated to account for 70% of those living in poverty worldwide (UNDP, 1995). The growing literature on women and transport has also clearly shown that they tend to have different travel needs deriving from the multiple tasks they must perform in their households and in their communities (Grieco and Turner, 1997). Low-income women tend also to be dramatically less mobile than men in the same socio-economic groups (Dutt, et al., 1994). They are more dependent on walking and tend to have less access to any bicycles or motorcycles in a household. Social restrictions hinder women's mobility in many cultures (Gopalan, 1998). Efforts to increase the mobility of poor women may face stiff resistance from those who feel threatened or offended by such direct empowerment of women (Hook, 1998). Sexual harassment (and worse) in streets and on public transport has been mentioned above. Since many more women than men are the care-givers of frail-elderly people, people with disabilities and of children, the transport problems of these disadvantaged groups also impact disproportionately on women. Poverty, of course, compounds each of these disadvantages. Urban transport planning must quickly become gender aware, beginning with the routine collection of gender disaggregated data in surveys. Gender needs to be "mainstreamed" in the transport planning process. It is not enough to just discuss gender as an afterthought. Efforts to promote meaningful public participation also require special attention to allow the voices of women to be heard.

UN CSD Secretariat's website on Transport
Visit for the following sections:

Decisions of the GA and the CSD
National Reports (50)
Other reports
Related websites

Women in Movement, transport in the feminine

World Bank. Gender and Transport Thematic Group (GTTG).