Transport Int'l Agreements

Background Papers

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International Agreements on Transport
(with a particular focus on agreements related to gender issues)

Criteria for Compilation of International Agreements


Agenda 21

Chapter 6. Protection and Promotion of Human Health

E. Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards


6.41 (a) Urban air pollution: (i)

6.41 (d) Pesticides


D. Meeting the urban health challenge

6.33. The health and well-being of all urban dwellers must be improved so that they can contribute to economic and social development. The global objective is to achieve a 10 to 40 per cent improvement in health indicators by the year 2000. The same rate of improvement should be achieved for environmental, housing and health service indicators. These include the development of quantitative objectives for infant mortality, maternal mortality, percentage of low birth weight newborns and specific indicators (e.g. tuberculosis as an indicator of crowded housing, diarrhoeal diseases as indicators of inadequate water and sanitation, rates of industrial and transportation accidents that indicate possible opportunities for prevention of injury, and social problems such as drug abuse, violence and crime that indicate underlying social disorders).


Agenda 21

Chapter 7. Promoting Sustainable Human Settlement Development

Introduction, Para 7.5 (e)

B. Improving human settlement management, Para 7.24

C. Promoting sustainable land use planning and management, Para 7.30 (h)

E. Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human settlements, Para 7.46 - 7.54 (a-c)


B. Improving human settlement management

Para 7.20 (a) Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable urban development, based on a continuous dialogue between the actors involved in urban development (public sector, private sector and communities), especially women and indigenous people;

D. Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste management

7.45 With the assistance and support of funding agencies, all countries should, as appropriate, undertake training and popular participation programmes aimed at:

    (a) Raising awareness of the means, approaches and benefits of the provision of environmental infrastructure facilities, especially among indigenous people, women, low-income groups and         the poor;

E. Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human settlements

7.51 A comprehensive approach to human settlements development should include the promotion of sustainable energy development in all countries, as follows:

(a) Developing countries, in particular and bilateral donors should:

(i) Formulate national action programmes to promote and support reafforestation and national forest regeneration with a view to achieve sustained provision of the biomass energy needs of the low-income groups in urban areas and the rural poor, in particular women and children;


Agenda 21

Chapter 8. Integrating Environment and Development in Decision-Making

C. Making effective use of economic instruments and market and other incentives, Para 8.33 (a)


Integrating environment and development at the policy, planning and management levels

8.2. Prevailing systems for decision-making in many countries tend to separate economic, social and environmental factors at the policy, planning and management levels. This influences the actions of all groups in society, including Governments, industry and individuals, and has important implications for the efficiency and sustainability of development. An adjustment or even a fundamental reshaping of decision-making, in the light of country-specific conditions, may be necessary if environment and development is to be put at the centre of economic and political decision-making, in effect achieving a full integration of these factors. In recent years, some Governments have also begun to make significant changes in the institutional structures of government in order to enable more systematic consideration of the environment when decisions are made on economic, social, fiscal, energy, agricultural, transportation, trade and other policies, as well as the implications of policies in these areas for the environment. New forms of dialogue are also being developed for achieving better integration among national and local government, industry, science, environmental groups and the public in the process of developing effective approaches to environment and development. The responsibility for bringing about changes lies with Governments in partnership with the private sector and local authorities, and in collaboration with national, regional and international organizations, including in particular UNEP, UNDP and the World Bank. Exchange of experience between countries can also be significant. National plans, goals and objectives, national rules, regulations and law, and the specific situation in which different countries are placed are the overall framework in which such integration takes place. In this context, it must be borne in mind that environmental standards may pose severe economic and social costs if they are uniformly applied in developing countries.


Agenda 21

Section II. Conservation and Management of Resources for Development
Chapter 9. Protection of the Atmosphere

B. Promoting sustainable development

Para 2. Transportation point 9.13 - 9.15 (a-f)


Agenda 21

Chapter 11. Combating Deforestation
C. Promoting efficient utilization and assessment to recover the full valuation of the goods and services provided by forests, forest lands and woodlands

Para 11.23 (c)


Agenda 21

Chapter 12. Managing Fragile Ecosystems: Combating Desertification and Drought

E. Developing comprehensive drought preparedness and drought-relief schemes, including self-help arrangements, for drought-prone areas and designing programmes to cope with environmental refugees

Basis for action

(a) Management-related activities

12.48. (a)


Agenda 21

Chapter 17. Protection of the Oceans, All Kinds of Seas, Including Enclosed and Semi-Enclosed Seas, and Coastal Areas and the Protection, Rational Use and development of Their Living Resources

Marine environmental protection

Basis for action


17.28 (j)

17.30 (a; xii)



Agenda 21

Chapter 19. Environmentally Sound Management of Toxic Chemicals, Including the Prevention of Illegal International Traffic in Toxic and Dangerous Products

Harmonization of classification and labelling of chemicals

Para 19.25.

(b) Data and information, Para 19.29.

D. Establishment of risk reduction programmes

Para 19.49 (a)

E. Strengthening of national capabilities and capacities for management of chemicals

Para 19.59 (b), 19.60 (d)


[Agenda 21

Chapter 20. Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes Including Prevention of Illegal International Traffic in Hazardous Wastes


Chapters relating to transport of hazardous wastes]


Agenda 21

Chapter 22. Safe and Environmentally Sound Management of Radioactive Wastes
Programme Area
Promoting the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes

Relating to transportation of radioactive wastes

Para 22.2


22.4 (a, c, d)

22.5 (a)


Agenda 21

Chapter 35. Science for Sustainable Development

Para 35.2.


The Earth Summit 1992: The Forest Principles

Para 13 (e)


Earth Summit II

Chapter 3. A. Integration of economic, social and environmental objectives

Para 24

Making trade and environment mutually supportive, Para 29 (e)


Earth Summit II

Chapter 3. B. Sectors and issues

Para 33

Energy, Para 43

Transport, Para 47 (a-h)

Radioactive wastes, Para 60


International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)

Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development
Chapter 3 : Interrelationships between Population, Sustained Economic Growth and Sustainable Development

  1. Integrating population and development strategies, Para 3.3.


3rd World Conference on Women, Nairobi 1985

The Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women

II. Development

Food, Water and Agriculture

176. Governments should establish multisectoral programmes to promote the productive capacity of rural poor women in food and animal production, create off-farm employment opportunities, reduce their work-load, inter alia, by supporting the establishment of adequate child-care facilities and that of their children, reverse their pauperization, improve their access to all sources of energy, and provide them with adequate water, health, education, effective extension services and transportation within their region. In this connection it should be noted that the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, held at Rome in 1979, 12/ recognized women's vital role in the socio-economic life in both agricultural and non-agricultural activities as a prerequisite for successful rural development policies, planning and programmes, and proposed specific measures for improving their condition, which are still valid. The Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women also included specific measures to improve the situation of women in food and agriculture, which remain a valid guide for action.

184. Appropriate food-processing technologies can free women from time- and energy-consuming tasks and thus effect improvements in their health. Appropriate technologies can also increase the productivity and income of women, either directly or by freeing them to engage in other activities. Such technologies should be designed and introduced, however, in a manner that ensures women's access to the new technology and to its benefits and does not displace women from means of livelihood when alternative opportunities are not available. Appropriate labour-saving technologies should utilize local human and material resources and inexpensive sources of energy. The design, testing and dissemination of the technology should be appropriate also to the women who will be the users. Non-governmental organizations can play a valuable role in this process. Appropriate and affordable food-processing technologies should be made widely available to rural women, along with appropriate and affordable storage, marketing and transportation facilities to reduce post-harvest and income losses. Information on improved methods which have been ecologically confirmed of reducing post-harvest food loss and of preserving and conserving food products should be widely disseminated.

Trade and commercial services

198. Governments should also recognize the positive contribution of women traders to local and national economies and should adopt policies to assist and organize these women. The infrastructure and management of markets, transportation and social services should be improved to increase the efficiency, security and income of women traders and to reduce their work-load and the hazards to their health, as well as to avoid wastage of marketable produce. Training opportunities in bookkeeping, finance, packaging, standardization and processing technology should be provided to women traders. Such training should also aim at opening up employment opportunities to these women in other marketing and credit institutions. Governments should design innovative mechanisms to provide women traders with access to credit and to encourage the establishment and reinforcement of women's trade associations.

Housing, settlement, community development and transport

213. All measures to increase the efficiency of land, water and air transportation should be formulated with due regard to women as producers and consumers. All national and local decisions concerning transportation policies, including subsidies, pricing, choice of technology for construction and maintenance, and means of transport, should consider women's needs and should be based on consideration of the possible impact on the employment, income and health of women.

214. Women's roles as operators and owners of means of transport should be promoted through greater access to credit for women and other appropriate means and equal consideration with regard to the allocation of contracts. This is particularly important for women's groups and collectives, especially in rural areas, that are usually well organized but are cut off from serviceable means of transport and communication.

215. Rural transportation planning in developing countries should aim at reducing the heavy burden on women who carry agricultural produce, water and fuelwood as head-loads. In exploring modes of transportation, efforts should be made to avoid loss of income and employment for women by introducing costs that may be too high for them.

216. In the choice of modes of transportation and the design of transport routes, the increasing ratio of women whose income is essential for family survival should be taken into account.

217. In the design and choice of both commercial and appropriate vehicular technology, the needs of women, especially those with young children, should be taken into consideration. Institutional support to give women access to appropriate vehicles should be provided.


The Fourth World Conference on Women

Chapter 1. Resolution 1. Annex II - The Beijing Platform for Action
IV. Strategic Objectives and Actions
F. Women and the Economy

Strategic objective F.2.

Facilitate women's equal access to resources, employment, markets and trade Actions to be taken

166. (e) Create and modify programmes and policies that recognize and strengthen women's vital role in food security and provide paid and unpaid women producers, especially those involved in food production, such as farming, fishing and aquaculture, as well as urban enterprises, with equal access to appropriate technologies, transportation, extension services, marketing and credit facilities at the local and community levels;
167. (d) Ensure that women's priorities are included in public investment programmes for economic infrastructure, such as water and sanitation, electrification and energy conservation, transport and road construction; promote greater involvement of women beneficiaries at the project planning and implementation stages to ensure access to jobs and contracts.


The Social Summit

Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development
Chapter II : Eradication of Poverty
Basis for action and objectives
B. Improved access to productive resources and infrastructure

Para 31. (a)

Para 34. (c)


Copenhagen +5

Outcome Document

Commitment 4, Para 64,

Commitment 5, Para 73ter,

Commitment 6, Para 83


International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)

Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development
Chapter 9 : Population Distribution, Urbanization and Internal Migration

Population distribution and sustainable development, Para 9.4.

B. Population growth in large urban agglomerations, 9.15., 9.18.


Habitat II Conference

Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements

Para 10


Habitat II Conference

I - Preamble, Para 9


Habitat II Conference

II - Goals and Principles

III, Para 29

IV, Para 30


Habitat II Conference

III. Commitments
B. Sustainable human settlements

Para 43 (c, n, p)


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
B. Adequate Shelter for All
1. Introduction

Para 61 c (vii)


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
B. Adequate Shelter for All
3. Shelter delivery systems

a) Enabling markets to work

e) Ensuring access to basic infrastructure and services, Para 84, 85 (c)


86. To ensure more equitable provision of basic infrastructure and service delivery systems, Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities, should:

(b) Involve local communities, particularly women, children and persons with disabilities, in decision-making and in setting priorities for the provision of services; ]


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
B. Adequate Shelter for All
4. Vulnerable groups and people with special needs

Para 96

(f) Promote systems of public transport that are affordable and accessible in order to make a wider range of housing and jobs available to vulnerable groups;


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
1. Introduction

Para 101


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world

2. Sustainable land use

Para 109, 111, 113 (h, i)


Para 113 (l) Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable human settlements through the development and support of strategies and mechanisms that encourage open and inclusive dialogue among all interested parties, with special attention to the needs and priorities of women, minorities, children, youth, people with disabilities, older persons and persons living in poverty and exclusion;


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
3. Social development: eradication of poverty, creation of productive employment and social integration

Para 121 (b)


119. In order to promote gender-sensitive planning and management of human settlements, Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities, in collaboration with women's groups and other interested parties, should:

(a) Adopt, where appropriate, by-laws, standards and norms and develop planning guidelines that take into consideration the needs and situations of women and men and girls and boys in relation to human settlements planning, development and decision-making, and in the provision of and access to basic services, including public transportation, health and educational facilities;

(b) Consider in the planning process the fact that women are often involved in the informal sector and use their homes for business or market activities;

(c) Promote representative structures, while ensuring women's full and equal participation;

(d) Develop policy guidelines and programmes that encourage and actively pursue the involvement of women's groups in all aspects of community development related to environmental infrastructure and the provision of basic urban services, and encourage women's own cooperatives, as well as their membership in other cooperatives;

(e) Promote changes in attitudes, structures, policies, laws and other practices relating to gender in order to eliminate all obstacles to human dignity and equality in family and society and promote full and equal participation of women and men, including persons with disabilities, in social, economic and political life, including in the formulation, implementation and follow-up of public policies and programmes;

(f) Foster economic policies that have a positive impact on the employment and income of women workers in both the formal and informal sectors and adopt specific measures to address women's unemployment, in particular their long-term unemployment;

(g) Eliminate legal and customary barriers, where they exist, to women's equal access to and control of land and finance;

(h) Promote equal access to all levels of education for girls and women;

(i) Establish programmes that address the absolute poverty found among rural women, focusing on their need for adequate shelter and employment;

(j) Generate and disseminate gender disaggregated data, while ensuring that such statistics are collected, compiled, analysed and presented by age and sex; set up monitoring mechanisms in government structures; and integrate the results into mainstream policies for sustainable human settlements development;

(k) Enhance community awareness of issues facing women living in poverty, the homeless, migrants, refugees, other displaced women in need of international protection, and internally displaced women, especially those issues related to physical and sexual abuse, and design appropriate community responses;

(l) Ensure equal access to housing, land and public services in the urban and rural areas in line with the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
6. Sustainable energy use
146 (d)


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
7. Sustainable transport and communication systems, Para 127 - 151 (a-g)


147. Transport and communication systems are the key to the movement of goods, people, information and ideas, and to access to markets, employment, schools and other facilities and land use, both within cities and between cities, and in rural and other remote areas. The transportation sector is a major consumer of non-renewable energy and of land and is a major contributor to pollution, congestion and accidents. Integrated transport and land-use policy and planning can reduce the ill effects of current transport systems. People living in poverty, women, children, youth, older persons and people with disabilities are particularly disadvantaged by the lack of accessible, affordable, safe and efficient public transport systems.


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
8. Conservation and rehabilitation of the historical and cultural heritage
Para 154 (i)


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
9. Improving urban economies

Para 156


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
10. Balanced development of settlements in rural regions
169 (c)

Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
D. Capacity-building and institutional development
5. Metropolitan planning and management
Para 185, 186 (f),

Para 186

(g) Develop or, where necessary, create a core of professional staff that includes women, trained in the areas of urban planning, environmental management, engineering, transportation, communications, social services, development of primary infrastructure, and emergency planning, and with the skills to work together to address major planning issues in an integrated way;

(h) Facilitate and promote policy dialogue, both nationally and internationally, and the exchange of experience, expertise, know-how and technology among metropolitan authorities in such areas as transport and communications, water management and waste-water treatment, waste management, energy conservation, environmental management, and social welfare that recognizes women and marginalized groups; II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
E. International cooperation and coordination
3. Financial resources and economic instruments

Para 204 (u)


Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action
F. Implementation and follow-up of the Habitat Agenda
5. Performance evaluation, indicators and best practices

239. It is essential to evaluate the impact of policies, strategies and actions on the provision of adequate shelter and the achievement of sustainable human settlements development. The results of these evaluations will be considered by the relevant United Nations organs and bodies, including the Commission on Human Settlements. The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), together with other relevant organizations, will be responsible for establishing an appropriate process for analysing and monitoring major trends in urbanization and the impact of urban policies. In particular, age and gender-disaggregated information on the impact of urbanization on vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including children, should be collected, taking into account other relevant work in this field.

241. As part of their commitment to strengthening their existing shelter- and settlements-related data collection and analysis capabilities, Governments at all levels, including local authorities, should continue to identify and disseminate best practices, and should develop and apply shelter and human settlements development indicators, including those that reflect the rights and well-being of children. The key indicators, augmented by policy-oriented national and subnational level indicators specific to the different regions, and other relevant information, as appropriate, will be used by Governments for assessing national implementation of the Habitat Agenda. The indicators should cover key areas of the Habitat Agenda, such as shelter, health, transport, energy, water supply, sanitation, employment and other aspects of urban sustainability, empowerment, participation and local responsibility, and should be gender-specific where possible. Such information, which should be available and accessible to all, will be provided to the United Nations, taking into account the different reporting procedures in the economic, social and environmental fields, and the need for reporting procedures to reflect diversity in regional, national, subnational and, in particular, local characteristics and priorities.




The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: CEDAW

The Convention Document

Article 14
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in rural areas in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, that they participate in and benefit from rural development and, in particular, shall ensure to such women the right:
(h) To enjoy adequate living conditions, particularly in relation to housing, sanitation, electricity and water supply, transport and communications.



Commission on Sustainable Development

CSD 1994

Chapter I

5. Changing consumption and production patterns

Para 47

Review of sectoral cluster: 2. Human Settlements

Para 118

Para 131 (b)

Para 132 (d)

Invites the appropriate United Nations agencies and organizations, through IACSD, to launch a demonstration initiative for environmentally friendly urban transport. That initiative should draw together the best available expertise on urban infrastructure management and should facilitate the exchange of knowledge on "best practices" between developed and developing countries. The Secretary-General is invited to report to the Commission on progress in that area by 1997;


CSD 1995

Chapter I

Para 77

B. Financial resources and mechanisms

Para 128, 129

Para 193,%20desertification,%20forests%20and%20biodiversity


CSD 1996

Decision 4/15. Protection of the atmosphere and protection of the oceans and all kinds of seas*

B. Protection of the atmosphere

Para 15

Decision 4/16. Review of the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

Para 2

G. Transport and communications, Para 29-35

Chapter II


Para 15


CSD 1998

Decision 6/2. Industry and sustainable development

F. Future Work

Para 69


  1. CSD 1999

Draft resolution


G. Promotion of sustainable consumption, Para 44

Matters brought to the attention of the Council

III. Areas of particular concern

D. Other marine activities

35. (j)

Decision 7/2. Changing consumption and production patterns

Para 13 (a)

Priorities for future work, Para 5

Annex, General considerations, Para 3, 7, 28

Annex, General considerations, Urbanization, Para 41, 45

Decision 7/3. Tourism and sustainable development, Para 5 (f), 8, 11

Chapter III Chairman's summary of the high-level segment, Para 39


  1. CSD 2000

Decision on Integrated Planning and Management of Land Resources

(g) Rural-urban and land management interactions

Para 23


Commission on the Status of Women

CSW 1994

IV. Priority Themes

12. Many representatives expressed concern about current trends, indicating that increasingly more women than men were single heads of households and that more women were migrating to urban areas. A few representatives stressed that mobility was a prerequisite for women's employment and career opportunities. Thus, such issues as public transport and housing for working women in urban and semi-urban locations should be given more attention. Some representatives emphasized the need for men and women to share all household duties

18. Many representatives stated that unless the specific situation of women was taken into account, the impact of urbanization on women's lives would remain negative. A few representatives observed out that if structural adjustment programmes implied budget cuts in such services as transportation, sanitation, and energy supply, women would be severely affected. One representative suggested that external support agencies could play an important role in making urban development more gender-sensitive.


CSW 1997

Agreed conclusions 1997/1. Women and the environment

22. Governments, in partnership with the private sector and other actors of civil society, should strive to eradicate poverty, especially the feminization of poverty, to change production and consumption patterns and to create sound, well-functioning local economies as the basis for sustainable development, inter alia, by empowering the local population, especially women. It is also important for women to be involved in urban planning, in the provision of basic facilities and communication and transport networks, and in policies concerned with safety. International cooperation should be strengthened to achieve this end.

Agreed conclusions 1997/4. Education and training of women

17. Governments should provide increased access to non-discriminatory education and training and create safe, enabling environments in order to retain girls and women in schools and eliminate gender disparities in school attendance at all levels of education, including the higher levels. Safety in schools and during extracurricular activities should be promoted by school authorities, parents and administrative personnel. All actors should join efforts by providing school feeding programmes, transport and boarding schools, when necessary. The contribution of non-governmental organizations to all fields of education and, in particular, to lifelong learning is of importance.


Commission for Social Development

CsocD 1995

C. Hunger and Poverty

4. Cooperation between urban and rural youth in food production and distribution

Para 39



Criteria for Compilations of International Agreements
In order to enable our effective input to CSD-9, we have compiled "packages" (compilations) of international agreements on the issue of Transport

The package has been compiled with a particular view on gender issues. We have tried to include the most relevant paragraphs from all the major UN conferences of the last decade and their follow-up processes:

Sustainable Development/Rio process,

Human Rights/ Vienna process,

Population/ Cairo process,

Social Development/ Copenhagen process,

Women/ Beijing process,

Human Settlements/ Istanbul process,

as well as reports from various Commission meetings, Conventions, and other official UN Documents.

In every case, we have provided LINKS to the full document where we found relevant paragraphs on the issue. In the Energy and Transport package we have quoted only those paragraphs with a particular gender focus (other paragraphs are only linked to).

We have tried to be fairly inclusive but have not quoted every para where, for example, energy is mentioned and limited the QUOTES mostly to those which mention gender / women. We tried to leave out repetitious paragraphs. Also, we have not quoted every para that has the notorious sentence on ‘particularly women and other vulnerable groups’.


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