Information Int'l Agreements

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International Agreements on Information for decision-making and
Indicators of sustainable development
(with a particular focus on agreements related to gender issues)

Criteria for Compilations of International Agreements

 

Agenda 21
Chapter 40. Information for Decision-Making
http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/ag21chap40.htm
in particular:
(c) Improvement of data collection and use
40.8. Countries and, upon request, international organizations should carry out inventories of environmental, resource and developmental data, based on national/global priorities for the management of sustainable development. They should determine the gaps and organize activities to fill those gaps. Within the organs and organizations of the United Nations system and relevant international organizations, data-collection activities, including those of Earthwatch and World Weather Watch, need to be strengthened, especially in the areas of urban air, freshwater, land resources (including forests and rangelands), desertification, other habitats, soil degradation, biodiversity, the high seas and the upper atmosphere. Countries and international organizations should make use of new techniques of data collection, including satellite-based remote sensing. In addition to the strengthening of existing development-related data collection, special attention needs to be paid to such areas as demographic factors, urbanization, poverty, health and rights of access to resources, as well as special groups, including women, indigenous peoples, youth, children and the disabled, and their relationships with environment issues.

(f) Strengthening of the capacity for traditional information
40.11. Countries, with the cooperation of international organizations, should establish supporting mechanisms to provide local communities and resource users with the information and know-how they need to manage their environment and resources sustainably, applying traditional and indigenous knowledge and approaches when appropriate. This is particularly relevant for rural and urban populations and indigenous, women's and youth groups.

Earth Summit II
United Nations General Assembly 19th Special Session, New York, 23-27 June 1997
Chapter 3. A. Integration of economic
Changing consumption and production patterns
28. Unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, particularly in the industrialized countries, are identified in Agenda 21 as the major cause of continued deterioration of the global environment. While unsustainable patterns in the industrialized countries continue to aggravate the threats to the environment, there remain huge difficulties for developing countries in meeting basic needs such as food, health care, shelter and education for people […]. Actions in this area should focus on:
(c) Developing core indicators to monitor critical trends in consumption and production patterns, with industrialized countries taking the lead;
http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/ES2chap3a.htm

 

Earth Summit II
Chapter 3. C. Means of implementation
Information and tools for measuring progress
114. The work programme of the Commission on Sustainable Development on indicators of sustainable development should result in a practicable and agreed set of indicators, suited to country-specific conditions, including a limited number of aggregated indicators, to be used at the national level, on a voluntary basis, by the year 2000. Such indicators of sustainable development, including, where appropriate, and subject to nationally specific conditions, sector-specific ones, should play an important role in monitoring progress towards sustainable development at the national level and in facilitating national reporting, as appropriate.
http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/ES2chap3c.htm

 

Earth Summit II

Chapter 4. International Institutional Arrangement

D. Methods of work of the Commission on Sustainable Development

133. Based on the experience gained during the period 1993-1997, the Commission, under the guidance of the Economic and Social Council, should:

(b) Continue to provide a forum for the exchange of national experience and best practices in the area of sustainable development, including through voluntary national communications or reports. Consideration should be given to the results of ongoing work aimed at streamlining requests for national information and reporting and to the results of the "pilot phase" relating to indicators of sustainable development. In this context, the Commission should consider more effective modalities for the further implementation of the commitments made in Agenda 21, with appropriate emphasis on the means of implementation. Countries may wish to submit to the Commission, on a voluntary basis, information regarding their efforts to incorporate the relevant recommendations of other United Nations conferences in national sustainable development strategies;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/ES2chap4.htm#D

 

Earth Summit II

Means of implementation:

Information and tools for measuring progress

Further Implementation of Agenda 21:
Paragraphs with Relevance to the CSD Work Programme on Indicators of Sustainable Development
111. The further development of cost-effective tools for collecting and disseminating information for decision makers at all levels through strengthened data collection, including, as appropriate, gender-disaggregated data and information that makes visible the unremunerated work of women for use in programme planning and implementation, compilation and analysis is urgently needed. In this context, emphasis will be placed on support for national and international scientific and technological data centres with appropriate electronic communication links between them.

http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/info.htm

26. The Secretariat should take into account the particular clusters of the multi-year thematic programme of work of the Commission and be guided by the following list of issues as regards the information to be included in the analytical reports envisaged in paragraph 28 below:

m. Other relevant environment and development issues, including those affecting youth, women and other major groups.

 

Human Rights Review

Follow-up to the World Conference on Human Rights, New York 1998

XIII. Conclusions

103.[...] In view of the input received by OHCHR specifically for the purpose of the five-year review, as well as other relevant United Nations documents, the General Assembly may wish to examine, in particular, the response to the following issues, which have direct impact on the full implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action:

(b) Making the system of international human rights instruments more effective: ratification of treaties, withdrawal of reservations, development of indicators and benchmarks for marking progress in the realization of rights and increasing the impact of treaty-based bodies all remain major objectives in this context. The universal ratification of the six core human rights treaties, including the optional protocols thereto, within the next five years, would not only serve as a decisive step towards a shared international legal commitment to the implementation of all human rights but would also symbolize the international community's willingness to work in a true spirit of partnership to reach common goals;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/human1%2013.htm

 

International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)

Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development

Chapter 3 : Interrelationships between Population, Sustained Economic Growth and Sustainable Development

B. Population, sustained economic growth and poverty

Basis for action

3.11. Gains recorded in recent years in such indicators as life expectancy and national product, while significant and encouraging, do not, unfortunately, fully reflect the realities of life of hundreds of millions of men, women, adolescents and children. Despite decades of development efforts, both the gap between rich and poor nations and the inequalities within nations have widened. Serious economic, social, gender and other inequities persist and hamper efforts to improve the quality of life for hundreds of millions of people. The number of people living in poverty stands at approximately 1 billion and continues to mount.

3.22. The international community should continue to promote a supportive economic environment, particularly for developing countries and countries with economies in transition in their attempt to eradicate poverty and achieve sustained economic growth in the context of sustainable development. In the context of the relevant international agreements and commitments, efforts should be made to support those countries, in particular the developing countries, by promoting an open, equitable, secure, non-discriminatory and predictable international trading system; by promoting foreign direct investment; by reducing the debt burden; by providing new and additional financial resources from all available funding sources and mechanisms, including multilateral, bilateral and private sources, including on concessional and grant terms according to sound and equitable criteria and indicators; by providing access to technologies; and by ensuring that structural adjustment programmes are so designed and implemented as to be responsive to social and environmental concerns.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/population6.htm

 

International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)

Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development

Chapter 4 : Gender Equality, Equity and Empowerment of Women

A. Empowerment and status of women

4.8. Governments, international organizations and non-governmental organizations should ensure that their personnel policies and practices comply with the principle of equitable representation of both sexes, especially at the managerial and policy-making levels, in all programmes, including population and development programmes.

Specific procedures and indicators should be devised for gender-based analysis of development programmes and for assessing the impact of those programmes on women's social, economic and health status and access to resources.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/population7.htm

 

International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)

Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development

Chapter 12 : Technology, Research and Development

A. Basic data collection, analysis and dissemination

12.5. Comprehensive and reliable qualitative as well as quantitative databases, allowing linkages between population, education, health, poverty, family well-being, environment and development issues and providing information disaggregated at appropriate and desired levels, should be established and maintained by all countries to meet the needs of research as well as those of policy and programme development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Special attention should be given to assessing and measuring the quality and accessibility of care through the development of suitable indicators.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/population14.htm

 

International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)

Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development

Chapter 14 : International Cooperation

B. Towards a new commitment to funding population and development

14.14. Criteria for allocation of external financial resources for population activities in developing countries should include:

(e) Problems of significant social sectors and areas that are not reflected in national average indicators.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/population17.htm

 

International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)

Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development

Chapter 16 : Follow-Up to the Conference

C. Activities at the international level

Basis for action

16.18. The implementation of the goals, objectives and actions of the present Programme of Action will require new and additional financial resources from the public and private sectors, non-governmental organizations and the international community. While some of the resources required could come from the reordering of priorities, additional resources will be needed. In this context, developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, will require additional resources, including on concessional and grant terms, according to sound and equitable indicators. Countries with economies in transition may also require temporary assistance in the light of the difficult economic and social problems these countries face at present. Developed countries, and others in a position to do so, should consider providing additional resources, as needed, to support the implementation of the decisions of this Conference through bilateral and multilateral channels, as well as through non-governmental organizations.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/population19.htm#icpdxvi

 

3rd World Conference on Women, Nairobi 1985

II. Development

B. Basic strategies

122. Monitoring and evaluation efforts should be strengthened and directed specifically towards women's issues and should be based on a thorough review and extensive development of improved statistics and indicators on the situation of women as compared with men, over time and in all fields.

V. International and Regional Co-operation

A. Measures for the implementation of the basic strategies

317. The implementation of the goals and objectives of the Decade - equality, development and peace - and of the Forward-looking Strategies should be monitored during the period 1986 to the year 2000. Monitoring at the international level should be based on reviews, at the regional, subregional and national levels, of action taken, resources allocated and progress achieved. The national reviews should take the form of a response to a regular statistical reporting request from the United Nations Secretariat, which should include indicators of the situation of women. The statistical reporting basis should be developed by the Statistical Commission, in consultation with the Commission on the Status of Women. The United Nations Secretariat should compile the results of such monitoring in consultation with the appropriate bodies of Governments, including national machinery established to monitor and improve the status of women. The action taken and progress achieved at the national level should reflect consultation with non-governmental organizations and integration of their concerns at all levels of government planning, implementation and evaluation, as appropriate.

V. International and Regional Co-operation

B. Measures for the implementation of the basic strategies

333. Technical and advisory assistance should be provided by the United Nations system at the national level to improve systematically statistical and other forms of gender-specific indicators and information that can help redirect policy and programmes for the more effective integration of women in development as contributors and beneficiaries.

V. International and Regional Co-operation

B. Measures for the implementation of the basic strategies

352. The United Nations regional commissions, with a view to integrating women's concerns at all levels in each commission's overall programme of work, should undertake further research on the status of women in their regions to the year 2000 by developing the necessary data base and indicators and by drawing upon inputs from the national and local levels, including perspectives on and by women at the grass-roots level. To this end, the regional commissions should include in their annual reports an analysis of chances in the situation of women in their regions.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/narirobi.htm

 

The Fourth World Conference on Women

Chapter 1. Resolution 1. Annex II - The Beijing Platform for Action

IV. Strategic Objectives and Actions

A. Women and poverty

Strategic objective A.4.

Develop gender-based methodologies and conduct research to address the feminization of poverty Actions to be taken

68. By national and international statistical organizations:
(a) Collect gender and age-disaggregated data on poverty and all aspects of economic activity and develop qualitative and quantitative statistical indicators to facilitate the assessment of economic performance from a gender perspective;
(b) Devise suitable statistical means to recognize and make visible the full extent of the work of women and all their contributions to the national economy, including their contribution in the unremunerated and domestic sectors, and examine the relationship of women's unremunerated work to the incidence of and their vulnerability to poverty.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/FWCWchap1a.htm

 

The Fourth World Conference on Women

Chapter 1. Resolution 1. Annex II - The Beijing Platform for Action

IV. Strategic Objectives and Actions

B. Education and training of women

Strategic objective B.5.

Allocate sufficient resources for and monitor the implementation of educational reforms. Actions to be taken

87. By international and intergovernmental organizations, especially the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, at the global level:
(a) Contribute to the evaluation of progress achieved, using educational indicators generated by national, regional and international bodies, and urge Governments, in implementing measures, to eliminate differences between women and men and boys and girls with regard to opportunities in education and training and the levels achieved in all fields, particularly in primary and literacy programmes;
http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/FWCWchap1b.htm

 

The Fourth World Conference on Women

Chapter 1. Resolution 1. Annex II - The Beijing Platform for Action

IV. Strategic Objectives and Actions

H. Institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women

Strategic objective H.3.

Generate and disseminate gender- disaggregated data and information for planning and evaluation Actions to be taken

206. By national, regional and international statistical services and relevant governmental and United Nations agencies, in cooperation with research and documentation organizations, in their respective areas of responsibility:
(a) Ensure that statistics related to individuals are collected, compiled, analysed and presented by sex and age and reflect problems, issues and questions related to women and men in society;
(b) Collect, compile, analyse and present on a regular basis data disaggregated by age, sex, socio-economic and other relevant indicators, including number of dependants, for utilization in policy and programme planning and implementation;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/FWCWchap1h.htm#Strategic%20objective%20H.3.

 

Beijing+5, 2000

IV. Actions and initiatives to overcome obstacles and to achieve the full and accelerated implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action

Actions to be taken at the national level

113 a. Provide national statistical offices with institutional and financial support in order

to collect, compile and disseminate data disaggregated by sex, age, and other factors as

appropriate, in formats that are accessible to the public and to policy-makers for inter

alia gender-based analysis, monitoring and impact assessment, and support new work to

develop statistics and indicators, especially in areas where information is particularly

lacking;

116a. Develop and use frameworks, guidelines and other practical tools and indicators to

accelerate gender mainstreaming, including gender-based research, analytical tools and

methodologies, training, case studies, statistics and information;

Actions to be taken at the national and international level

125 (a) Promote international cooperation to support regional and national efforts in the

development and use of gender-related analysis and statistics by, inter alia , providing

national statistical offices, upon their request, with institutional and financial support in

order to enable them to respond to requests for data disaggregated by sex and age for use by

national governments in the formulation of gender-sensitive statistical indicators for

monitoring and policy and programme impact assessments, as well as to undertake regular

strategic surveys;

125 h. Develop with the full participation of all countries an international consensus on

indicators and ways to measure violence against women and consider establishing a readily

accessible database on statistics, legislation, training models, good practices, lessons learned

and other resources with regard to all forms of violence against women, including women

migrant workers;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/women/un-doku/un-conf/b+5%20outcome.pdf

 

The Social Summit

Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development

Commitment 9

We commit ourselves to increasing significantly and/or utilizing more efficiently the resources allocated to social development in order to achieve the goals of the Summit through national action and regional and international cooperation.

To this end, at the national level, we will:

(d) Ensure that reliable statistics and statistical indicators are used to develop and assess social policies and programmes so that economic and social resources are used efficiently and effectively;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/social2.htm#c

 

The Social Summit

Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development

Chapter II : Eradication of Poverty

Basis for action and objectives

Actions

A. Formulation of integrated strategies

26. Governments should give greater focus to public efforts to eradicate absolute poverty and to reduce overall poverty substantially by:

(d) Elaborating, at the national level, the measurements, criteria and indicators for determining the extent and distribution of absolute poverty. Each country should develop a precise definition and assessment of absolute poverty, preferably by 1996, the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty; 12/

29. There is a need to periodically monitor, assess and share information on the performance of poverty eradication plans, evaluate policies to combat poverty, and promote an understanding and awareness of poverty and its causes and consequences. This could be done, by Governments, inter alia, through:

(a) Developing, updating and disseminating specific and agreed gender- disaggregated indicators of poverty and vulnerability, including income, wealth, nutrition, physical and mental health, education, literacy, family conditions, unemployment, social exclusion and isolation, homelessness, landlessness and other factors, as well as indicators of the national and international causes underlying poverty; for this purpose, gathering comprehensive and comparable data, disaggregated by ethnicity, gender, disability, family status, language groupings, regions and economic and social sectors;

Meeting the basic human needs of all

36. Governments should implement the commitments that have been made to meet the basic needs of all, with assistance from the international community consistent with chapter V of the present Programme of Action, including, inter alia, the following:

(n) Monitoring the implementation of those commitments at the highest appropriate level and considering the possibility of expediting their implementation through the dissemination of sufficient and accurate statistical data and appropriate indicators.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/social5.htm

 

The Social Summit

Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development

Chapter III : Expansion of Productive Employment and Reduction of Unemployment

Basis for action and objectives

B. Education, training and labour policies

52. Facilitating people's access to productive employment in today's rapidly changing global environment and developing better quality jobs requires:

(i) Strengthening labour market information systems, particularly through development of appropriate data and indicators on employment, underemployment, unemployment and earnings, as well as dissemination of information concerning labour markets, including, as far as possible, work situations outside formal markets. All such data should be disaggregated by gender in order to monitor the status of women relative to men.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/social6.htm

 

The Social Summit

Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development

Chapter V : Implementation and Follow-Up

Actions

  1. National strategies, evaluations and reviews

83. The promotion of an integrated approach to the implementation of the Programme of Action at the national level, in accordance with national specificities, requires:

(h) Developing quantitative and qualitative indicators of social development, including, where possible, disaggregation by gender, to assess poverty, employment, social integration and other social factors, to monitor the impact of social policies and programmes, and to find ways to improve the effectiveness of policies and programmes and introduce new programmes;

84. International support for the formulation of national strategies for social development will require actions by bilateral and multilateral agencies for:

(c) Developing improved concepts and programmes for the collection and dissemination of statistics and indicators for social development to facilitate review and policy analysis and provide expertise, advice and support to countries at their request.

98. The implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration and the Programme of Action of the Summit will involve many entities of the United Nations system. In order to ensure coherence in this effort, the General Assembly should give consideration to:

(e) The United Nations system's capacity for gathering and analysing information and developing indicators of social development should be strengthened, taking into account the work carried out by different countries, in particular by developing countries. The capacity of the United Nations system for providing policy and technical support and advice, upon request, to improve national capacities in this regard should also be strengthened.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/social8.htm

 

Copenhagen +5, 2000

Outcome Document
Overall review and appraisal of the implementation of the outcome of the World Summit for Social Development

7. The compilation of broad-based and disaggregated data by national Governments, both qualitative and quantitative indicators, to evaluate progress in the areas covered by the targets, has presented an important challenge. In this regard, Governments may, as appropriate, seek assistance from international organizations. Since the Summit, efforts have been made to improve the quality, timeliness and country coverage of data.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/c+5%20outcome.htm

Commitment 5: To promote full respect for human dignity and to achieve equality and equity between women and men and to recognize and enhance the participation and leadership roles of women in political, civil, economic, social and cultural life and in development:

72quater. Promote international cooperation to support regional and national efforts in the development and use of gender-related analysis and statistics by, inter alia, providing national statistical offices, upon their request, with institutional and financial support in order to enable them to respond to requests for data disaggregated by sex and age for use by national Governments in the formulation of gender-sensitive statistical indicators for monitoring and policy and programme impact assessment, as well as to undertake regular strategic surveys.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/c+5%20outcome.htm

Commitment 10: To promote an improved and strengthened framework for international, regional and subregional cooperation for social development, in a spirit of partnership, through the United Nations and other multilateral institutions:

115. Develop, strengthen and make more effective indicators at the national level for assessing and guiding social development, in collaboration with research institutions and civil society, as appropriate. These could include quantitative and qualitative indicators for assessing, inter alia, the social and gender impact of policies. Also develop and strengthen national information systems to produce reliable statistics on social and economic development. The relevant bodies of the United Nations and other relevant institutions should support, upon request, these national efforts.

116. Invite the Statistical Commission, with the assistance of the Statistics Division and in close cooperation with other relevant bodies of the United Nations system, including the Administrative Committee on Coordination, and, as appropriate, other relevant international organizations, to review, with a view to facilitating future consideration by the Council, the work undertaken in harmonizing and rationalizing basic indicators in the context of follow-up to United Nations conferences and summits, taking fully into account the decisions taken in other functional and regional commissions and, in that process, to identify a limited number of common indicators from among those currently accepted and widely used by the States Members of the United Nations, in order to lessen the data provision burden on Member States, bearing in mind the work done so far in this area.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/c+5%20outcome.htm

 

Habitat II Conference

III Commitments

G. Assessing progress

51. We commit ourselves to observing and implementing the Habitat Agenda as a guide for action within our countries and will monitor progress towards that goal. Quantitative and qualitative indicators at the national and local levels, which are disaggregated to reflect the diversity of our societies, are essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating progress towards the achievement of adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements. In this regard, the well-being of children is a critical indicator of a healthy society. Age and gender-sensitive indicators, disaggregated data and appropriate data-collection methods must be developed and used to monitor the impact of human settlements policies and practices on cities and communities, with special and continuous attention to the situation of those belonging to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. We recognize the need for an integrated approach and concerted action to achieve the objective of adequate shelter for all and to sustainable human settlements development and will strive for coordinated implementation of international commitments and action programmes.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/hab%202%20III%20G.htm

 

Habitat II Conference

III Commitments

D. Gender equality (1)

46. We commit ourselves to the goal of gender equality in human settlements development. We further commit ourselves to:

(b) Developing conceptual and practical methodologies for incorporating gender perspectives in human settlements planning, development and evaluation, including the development of indicators;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/hab%202%20III%20D.htm

 

Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action

C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world

2. Sustainable land use

113. Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities and other interested parties, with the support of the relevant international and regional institutions, should support the efforts of human settlements to establish sustainable urban land-use patterns and planning and, to that end, should:

(k) Promote the use of tools and the development of capacities for transparent urban monitoring and reporting activities based on appropriate indicators for the environmental, social and economic performance of cities;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/hab%202%20IV%20C%202.htm

 

Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action

C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world

5. Environmentally sustainable, healthy and

Actions

136. To improve the health and well-being of all people throughout their life-span, particularly people living in poverty, Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities, in partnership with other interested parties, should:

(a) Develop and implement national, subnational and local health plans or strategies and strengthen environmental health services to prevent, mitigate and respond to diseases and ill health resulting from poor conditions in living and working environments and the conditions of people living in poverty, and continue work towards the Agenda 21 objective of achieving a 10 to 40 per cent improvement in health indicators by the year 2000;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/hab%202%20IV%20C%205.htm

     

Habitat II Conference
IV Global Plan of Action
D. Capacity-building and institutional development

7. Information and communications

193. To increase the knowledge and strengthen the information base, Governments and local authorities, together with research institutions, statistical offices and other interested parties, should:

(b) Strengthen existing human settlements related information systems by adopting efficient and sustainable methodologies and institutional arrangements, by systematically incorporating research results and by compiling, analysing and updating data for human settlements and shelter statistics and policy-sensitive indicators;

(c) Disseminate research indicators and other information widely, mainstream their results in policy-making at all levels and ensure a two-way flow of information between producers and users of information.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/hab%202%20IV%20D%207.htm

 

Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action

E. International cooperation and coordination

1. Introduction

197. Innovative approaches and frameworks for international cooperation in the development and management of human settlements must be sought and developed to include the active participation of all levels of government, the private and cooperative sectors, non-governmental organizations and community-based organizations in decision-making, policy formulation and resource allocation, implementation and evaluation. These approaches and frameworks should also include new and improved forms of cooperation and coordination between and among countries, multilateral and bilateral assistance agencies, international financial institutions, international organizations, and various organs and bodies of the United Nations system, including South-South, North-South and South-North exchanges of best practices, and the continuous development of tools and instruments for policy, planning and management, such as the application of shelter and urban indicators, human resources development and institutional capacity-building.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/hab%202%20IV%20E%201.htm

 

Habitat II Conference

IV Global Plan of Action

F. Implementation and follow-up of the Habitat Agenda

5. Performance evaluation, indicators and best practices

240. All partners of the Habitat Agenda, including local authorities, the private sector and communities, should regularly monitor and evaluate their own performances in the implementation of the Habitat Agenda through comparable human settlements and shelter indicators and documented best practices. The Centre's responsibilities will include providing assistance to establish guidelines for national and local monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the Habitat Agenda through the use of housing and human settlements indicator programmes. The data collection and analysis capabilities of all these partners should be strengthened and assisted, where appropriate, at all levels, especially the local level.

241. As part of their commitment to strengthening their existing shelter- and settlements-related data collection and analysis capabilities, Governments at all levels, including local authorities, should continue to identify and disseminate best practices, and should develop and apply shelter and human settlements development indicators, including those that reflect the rights and well-being of children. The key indicators, augmented by policy-oriented national and subnational level indicators specific to the different regions, and other relevant information, as appropriate, will be used by Governments for assessing national implementation of the Habitat Agenda. The indicators should cover key areas of the Habitat Agenda, such as shelter, health, transport, energy, water supply, sanitation, employment and other aspects of urban sustainability, empowerment, participation and local responsibility, and should be gender-specific where possible. Such information, which should be available and accessible to all, will be provided to the United Nations, taking into account the different reporting procedures in the economic, social and environmental fields, and the need for reporting procedures to reflect diversity in regional, national, subnational and, in particular, local characteristics and priorities.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-conf/hab%202%20IV%20F%205.htm

 

Secretary General Reports

Report of the Secretary-General to the Commission on the Status of Women, 39th Session, 27 Feb. 1995 regarding

PREPARATIONS FOR THE FOURTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN:

ACTION FOR EQUALITY, DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE: REVIEW AND APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NAIROBI FORWARD-LOOKING STRATEGIES FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN

II. CRITICAL AREAS OF CONCERN
C. Inequality in access to health and related services

6. The need to encourage participation of local women's organizations in primary-health-care activities was part of the focus of the Strategies, as were the application of gender-specific indicators for monitoring women's health and the necessity of enhancing the concerns with occupational health and the harmonisation of work and family responsibilities.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/otherun/secretar.htm#csw95

 

 

 

Conventions

UN ECE Regional Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention)

http://www.unece.org/env/pp/

 

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa

Paris, 17 June 1994

Section 2: Scientific and technical cooperation

Article 16. Information collection, analysis and exchange

(c) support and further develop bilateral and multilateral programmes and projects aimed at defining, conducting, assessing and financing the collection, analysis and exchange of data and information, including, inter alia, integrated sets of physical, biological, social and economic indicators;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/otherun/ccdtext.htm

 

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa

Annex I. Regional Implementation Annex for Africa

Article 9. Preparation of national action programmes and implementation and evaluation indicators

Each affected African country Party shall designate an appropriate national coordinating body to function as a catalyst in the preparation, implementation and evaluation of its national action programme. This coordinating body shall, in the light of article 3 and as appropriate:

d) establish pertinent, quantifiable and readily verifiable indicators to ensure the assessment and evaluation of national action programmes, which encompass actions in the short, medium and long terms, and of the implementation of such programmes; and

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/otherun/ccdtext1.htm

 

 

Commissions

Commission on Sustainable Development

CSD 1993

MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OR BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION

B. Issues relating to the future work of the Commission

26. The Secretariat should take into account the particular clusters of the multi-year thematic programme of work of the Commission and be guided by the following list of issues as regards the information to be included in the analytical reports envisaged in paragraph 28 below:

(d) Measures taken, including indicators, and progress achieved to reach sustainable production and consumption patterns and lifestyles, to combat poverty and to limit the demographic impact on the life-supporting capacity of the planet;

30. Bearing in mind the evolving nature of Agenda 21 and the concept of sustainability in general, the Commission, in its analysis of the reports requested above, will focus on sharing local, national, subregional and regional experiences and on the elaboration of recommendations on mobilizing support for national efforts to implement Agenda 21. In the light of future progress in the elaboration of realistic, usable and easily understandable indicators that would provide a basis for a meaningful assessment of progress towards sustainable development, the Commission will consider the possibility of integrating such indicators in the process outlined above.

40. The Commission takes note of the processes launched within the United Nations system to improve the coordination of programmes related to development data, and requests the Secretary-General, with the assistance of the Administrative Committee on Coordination, to continue to formulate proposals regarding Development Watch, envisaged in paragraph 40.13 of Agenda 21, as well as the elaboration of realistic, usable and easily understandable indicators that would allow the Commission to assess the progress made towards sustainable development.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csd/csd1993.htm

 

CSD 1995

Chapter I

MATTERS CALLING FOR ACTION BY THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OR BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION

A. General discussion on progress in the implementation of Agenda 21, 1/ focusing on the cross-sectoral components of Agenda 21, and the critical elements of sustainability

1. Information for decision-making

1. The Commission, having examined the report of the Secretary-General on information for decision-making and Earthwatch (E/CN.17/1995/18), noted and welcomed the important measures taken by Governments to make information more accessible to decision makers at the national level, and calls upon national Governments to utilize this information for sustainable development at the country level. The aim of such measures includes the development of a comprehensive and coherent information programme, drawing upon public participation in data collection and assessment. In this context, developed countries are urged to utilize both bilateral and multilateral channels to facilitate access by developing countries, and countries whose economies are in transition, to sources of information relative to sustainable development. The Sustainable Development Networking Programme of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is one model for such initiatives.

2. The Commission calls attention to the feasibility study undertaken by UNDP to provide access to information on sustainable development to 35 small island developing States, 2/ which was welcomed by the General Assembly in its resolution 49/122 on the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.

3. The Commission expresses its appreciation to the organizers of the six workshops that furthered understanding of the issues addressed in chapter 40 of Agenda 21, particularly the efforts related to developing a work programme on indicators of sustainable development, and it supports and encourages further work in this area as elaborated in paragraphs 7 and 8 below.

4. The Commission welcomes the contribution of non-governmental organizations to the process of generating information for decision-making, including the articulation of views from local and grass-roots levels and from major groups, and expresses its desire that these activities continue and be integrated, to the extent possible, with those of national Governments, organizations of the United Nations system and other intergovernmental organizations.

5. The Commission expresses appreciation for the extensive international collaboration in the United Nations system-wide Earthwatch and its responsiveness to the priorities of Agenda 21 and to user needs. It urges Governments and major groups, as well as relevant international organizations and the scientific community, to participate actively in strengthening Earthwatch as an international partnership to ensure an adequate flow of information on the global and regional environment, to support decision-making and to give early warning on the state of the environment. Special attention is drawn to the need for improved delivery of information to decision makers and to increased participation in environmental observations at the local and national levels within regional and international frameworks. In this regard, the Commission welcomes all appropriate participation in the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Programme, as described in General Assembly resolution 49/112.

6. The Commission recalls that, in addition to Earthwatch, which is a global system for environmental information, Agenda 21, in paragraph 40.13, calls for the more effective coordination also of development data, "perhaps through an equivalent and complementary 'Development Watch'". In this context, the Commission noted the cooperative effort of the organizations of the United Nations system to prepare proposals for the creation of such a Development Watch. It requests UNDP, with the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Bank, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and in cooperation with the regional commissions and other interested organizations, to further define Development Watch and, in this regard, to submit a progress report on the implementation of the programme of work for Development Watch to the Commission at its session in 1997, taking into account the need for a close linkage between Development Watch and Earthwatch.

7. The Commission noted the importance of developing, among the organizations of the United Nations system, a common or compatible system of access to their respective databases, in order to share data fully, to streamline the collection and interpretation of data and to identify data gaps, for the purpose of providing more comprehensive and integrated data to decision makers at the national, regional and international levels. The Commission invites the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development to refine measures for establishing such a common or compatible system and to report thereon to the Commission at its fourth session. The Commission notes also the rapidly growing number of information systems for sustainable development at the national and regional levels, and invites the Secretary-General to consider ways of enhancing compatibility among and access to these systems and to report his findings to the Commission at its session in 1997.

8. Governments are encouraged to develop or conduct studies on the development of indicators of sustainable development in accordance with specific national conditions. In this context, there is a need for coordination, especially through the Commission, of the many intergovernmental and scientific institutions working in this area, as well as a need for intensive international dialogue.

9. The Commission urges bodies such as the Statistical Division of the United Nations Secretariat, the statistical services of Member States and other appropriate institutions, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Statistical Office of the European Communities and major groups to cooperate in the development of indicators of sustainable development. Furthermore, the Commission encourages the scientific community, including the project on indicators of sustainable development undertaken by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), to focus its efforts on the development and improvement of such indicators.

10. The Commission reiterates the importance of developing indicators of sustainable development for use by decision makers at the local, regional and national levels and expresses its appreciation to the organizations, both intergovernmental and non-governmental, and the Governments that have contributed to the process of defining a programme of work for the further development of indicators of sustainable development.

11. The Commission approves the programme of work on indicators for sustainable development contained in annex I to the report of the Secretary- General (E/CN.17/1995/18) and calls upon the organizations of the United Nations system, with the support of other intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and through the coordination of the Department for Programme Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat, to implement, within existing resources, the following, as outlined in the programme of work: (a) enhancement of information exchange among all interested actors; (b) development of methodology sheets to be made available to Governments; (c) training and capacity-building at the regional and national levels; (d) testing of an appropriate combination of indicators and monitoring of experiences in a few countries; (e) evaluation of the indicators, including those mentioned in the report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.17/1995/18), and adjustment, as necessary; (f) identification and assessment of linkages among the economic, social, institutional and environmental elements of sustainable development; (g) development of highly aggregated indicators; and (h) further development of the conceptual framework for sustainable development indicators, involving experts from the areas of economics, the social sciences and the physical sciences and policy makers, as well as incorporating non-governmental organization and indigenous views. The Commission requests the Secretariat to provide it with a progress report on the implementation of the programme of work at its fourth session, in 1996.

12. The Commission took note of the report of the Statistical Commission on its twenty-eighth session, 3/ and expresses its appreciation to the Statistical Commission for its offer to collaborate with and support the Commission in its work on indicators for sustainable development. In this context, the Commission also welcomes the action taken by the Statistical Commission with respect to the international compilation of environmental indicators from national statistical services and looks forward to the contribution of this work to the overall programme of work on indicators of sustainable development. The Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat should promote and assist these efforts.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csd/csd1995.htm

 

CSD 1996

Decision 4/5. Information for decision-making

(* Chapter 40 of Agenda 21. For the discussion, see chapter V below.)

1. The Commission on Sustainable Development, having taken note of the report of the Secretary-General on information for decision-making (E/CN.17/1996/18 and Add.1), welcomes the measures taken by Governments to make information more accessible to decision makers at the national level.

2. The Commission expresses its appreciation of the meetings held during the inter-sessional period to further the work and understanding of issues addressed in chapter 40 of Agenda 21, particularly as they relate to indicators of sustainable development, Earthwatch, Development Watch, the establishment of common and compatible systems of access to data, and common core data sets.

3. The Commission takes note of the progress made in the implementation of the work programme on indicators of sustainable development, approved at its third session, and welcomes that progress, particularly with regard to the preparation of methodology sheets for the various indicators.

4. The Commission invites Governments to test, develop and use the indicators of sustainable development based, inter alia, on the work done to date, as appropriate, on identifying the indicators and preparing the corresponding methodology sheets. In this regard, Governments are encouraged, as appropriate, to adopt indicators at the national level and to consider the advantages of working in partnership with other countries in the testing, further development and use of the indicators. For example, twinning between countries with more and less experience in using indicators could prove beneficial to both.

5. The Commission expresses its appreciation of the conclusions of the meeting on common and compatible systems of access to data, and requests the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the Secretariat, in cooperation with other organizations of the United Nations system, and within available resources, to establish a sustainable development home page on the World Wide Web, with "hot links" to relevant databases throughout the United Nations system, as a means to facilitate access by countries to sources of information relevant to sustainable development.

6. The Commission requests the Economic and Social Council's Ad Hoc Open- Ended Working Group on the Need to Harmonize and Improve United Nations Information Systems (for Optimal Utilization and Accessibility by States) to give particular attention to devising a means of facilitating the access of States Members of the United Nations to environmental databases throughout the United Nations system, within available resources.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csd/csd1996.htm

 

CSD 1999

Chapter I. Matters calling for action by the Economic and Social Council or brought to its attention

Annex : United Nations guidelines for consumer protection

G. Promotion of sustainable consumption

53. Governments, in cooperation with business and other relevant groups, should develop indicators, methodologies and databases for measuring progress towards sustainable consumption at all levels. This information should be publicly available.

Decision 7/2. Changing consumption and production patterns

Effective policy development and implementation

7. Governments, in cooperation with relevant international organizations and in partnership with major groups, should:

(f) Further develop, test and improve the preliminary set of indicators for sustainable consumption and production developed under the Commission's work programme, focusing on the practical use of the indicators for policy development, taking into account the special needs and conditions of developing countries;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csd/csd1999.htm

 

CSD 2000

Decision on Integrated Planning and Management of Land Resources

7. International cooperation, including that for capacity building, information sharing and technology transfer

31. Governments and relevant international institutions are encouraged to develop and to use at all levels appropriate land-use indicators, best practices and related monitoring systems.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csd/csd2000land.htm

 

CSD 2000

Decision on Agriculture adopted

3. International cooperation

(c) United Nations and other international activities

41. Relevant organizations and bodies are encouraged to make further efforts, with special attention to the gender perspective, in developing methodologies and improving coordination for data collection, indicators analysis, monitoring and evaluation of public and private efforts to support sustainable agriculture and rural development.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csd/csd2000sard.htm

 

UN CSD page on CSD-9 topic: information for decision-making and participation: documents, upcoming meetings, etc.

http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/info.htm

 

The UN CSD / DESA Indicators for Sustainable Development, pilot countries, etc. http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/isd.htm

 

Guidelines for National Reporting to CSD IX on Information for Decision-Making (Agenda Chapter 40)

http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/niau/csd9/part6e.htm

 

 

Commission on Population and Development

CPD 1994

Chapter III. Programme questions

B. Proposed programme of work for the biennium 1994-1995

2. World population projections

84. The Commission noted with satisfaction that the 1994 revision of the global population estimates and projections was currently in preparation, that the projection horizon had been extended to the year 2050, and that the 1994 revision would provide age and sex distributions and demographic indicators for countries with 150,000 or more inhabitants, and for the numerous newly independent States

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/cpop/pop1994.htm

 

CPD 1995

Annex I. Views of the Commission on Population and Development on the implications for the Commission of follow-up to the International Conference on Population and Development

III. WORK PROGRAMME OF THE COMMISSION ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

The following reports […] will be prepared annually

(3) World Population Monitoring. This will be an annual report on a special set of themes of the Programme of Action. Its preparation will be coordinated by the Population Division. In their in-depth consideration of the annual set of themes, each of these reports could be structured so as to give adequate attention to, inter alia, the following items: (a) issues and trends, with appropriate attention to progress to date, cross-cutting concerns and problems of different regions and subregions, including developing countries; (b) relevant policies, plans, programmes and activities of Governments, the United Nations system and non- governmental organizations, and what is known about their impact; (c) priority areas for future action; and (d) requirements for data, indicators and future research. A concise summary of the report will be made available in all the official languages.

Annex II. Views of the Commission on Population and Development on programme questions

1. The Commission has reviewed the work programme for the biennium 1996-1997. It underlines the need for the work programme to take fully into account the outcome of the International Conference on Population and Development and forthcoming conferences and summits such as the World Summit for Social Development, the Fourth World Conference on Women and the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), and the ongoing consideration of an agenda for development, as well as annex I to the present report. It suggests that the work programme:

(a) Continue to give high priority to the monitoring of population trends and policies;

(b) Undertake biennial preparation of estimates and projections of global, national, urban, rural and city populations, including demographic indicators and age structure, in order to provide internationally comparable data as the basis for policy and programme formulation and implementation;

Annex II. Views of the Commission on Population and Development on programme questions

3. The Commission noted that the follow-up to the International Conference on Population and Development would require the Population Division to be involved in new work such as the elaboration of reproductive health indicators and the interrelationship between migration and development. The Commission recommends the strengthening of the Secretariat in the field of population, from within existing resources, in order to ensure adequate preparation and support for the Commission on Population and Development.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/cpop/pop1995.htm

 

CPD 1996

Chapter I. Matters calling for action by the Economic and Social Council or brought to its attention

A. Draft resolution

12. Requests the Task Force on Basic Social Services to coordinate the development of appropriate indicators, taking into account relevant research, so that progress in addressing reproductive health needs by individual countries can be assessed on a reliable basis;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/cpop/pop1996.htm

 

CPD 1997

Chapter I. Matters calling for action by the Economic and Social Council or brought to its attention

C. Matters brought to the attention of the Council

Resolution 1997/1. Technical symposium on international migration*

The Commission on Population and Development,

4. Also invites the Working Group to develop an agenda for the technical symposium that builds on existing recommendations on definitions of international migration, focuses on the identification of measurable indicators, and analyses the complex interrelationships between international migration and development, including the experiences on policies concerning the management of international migration;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/cpop/pop1997.htm

 

Commission on the Status of Women

CSW 1993

Resolution 37/7. Preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace*

IV

Second review and appraisal of the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women

Taking into account the need for the global report of the implementation of the Forward-looking Strategies to reflect the situation of countries and regions and the criteria of Governments as regards the implementation of the Strategies,

4. Requests the Secretariat to prepare a list of the most significant indicators on the basis of the critical areas of concern identified in the structure of the Platform for Action, taking into account the availability of reliable national statistics, and to circulate it to national committees and focal points to initiate and promote preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace;

Platform for Action

12. Many representatives indicated that the Platform for Action should be action-oriented, concise and written in a language that was simple and easy to understand. Several representatives said that it should contain clearly specified and realistic goals, concrete recommendations, well-defined targets and priorities, as well as indicators for measurable achievement. A few representatives pointed to the need to organize the action required according to short-, medium- and long-term plans and to call upon Governments to make new political commitments and to specify the efforts required at the regional and national levels.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csw/csw1993.htm

 

CSW 1996

Agreed conclusions 1996/2. Women and the media

D. Creating an enabling environment

12. The creation of a positive environment is a condition to promote measures intended to achieve a balanced portrayal of women and girls. Changes should be promoted in an enabling way and not through prescription. Ongoing research, including the establishment of indicators and monitoring, is important for assessing progress.

Resolution 40/9. Implementation of strategic objectives and action in the critical area of concern: poverty

13. Recommends that a United Nations system-wide effort be undertaken to review existing indicators, strengthen gender impact analysis of the design and implementation of economic reform programmes, develop complementary, qualitative assessments, and standardize measures and promote their implementation, and stresses that this effort will necessitate effective coordination;

COMMENTS OF THE COMMISSION ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN ON THE PROPOSED SYSTEM-WIDE MEDIUM-TERM PLAN FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN, 1996-2001

II. SPECIFIC COMMENTS

A. Women and poverty

9. More emphasis should be placed on the need for joint efforts by the United Nations system as regards the use of gender-disaggregated data and the development of indicators to monitor trends in poverty from a gender perspective

F. Women and the economy

34. The work on indicators should be better coordinated. The World Bank should also be associated with the analysis of data on globalization and change in international work patterns.

K. Women and the environment

58. The work on indicators should be integrated with the work initiated under the aegis of the Commission on Sustainable Development.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csw/csw1996.htm

 

CSW 1997

Resolution 41/6. Mainstreaming gender perspective into all policies and programmes in the United Nations system*

20. Encourages the Economic and Social Council at its coordination segment to evaluate the steps taken by the United Nations system to implement the recommendations in its agreed conclusions 1996/1 on mainstreaming a gender perspective in United Nations activities for poverty eradication, including the use of data disaggregated by sex, review of statistical indicators, gender-impact analysis, monitoring and evaluation, and gender-sensitive training, and to present recommendations on further steps to ensure a common United Nations system-wide approach to mainstreaming a gender perspective in all United Nations development activities, including those of United Nations funds and programmes and the specialized agencies;

Resolution 41/6. Mainstreaming gender perspective into all policies and programmes in the United Nations system

26. Encourages the Economic and Social Council, at its coordination segment in 1997, to develop specific recommendations for mainstreaming a gender perspective into all United Nations system activities, including by:

(b) Encouraging the development of methodologies and practical tools for mainstreaming a gender perspective and for monitoring progress thereon on a regular basis, especially at senior levels, through, inter alia, performance indicators and evaluation, mechanisms for accountability, impact analysis and identifying best practices;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csw/csw1997.htm#main

Chapter II

FOLLOW-UP TO THE FOURTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN

Assessing the relationship between women and the environment and the impact of environmental factors on women

41. The lack of gender-disaggregated data, indicators (both qualitative and quantitative) and research on gender impacts of environmental policies and programmes was noted. Efforts were needed to collect and improve data disaggregated by sex so as to better understand the impact of environmental policies and programmes on women. The lack of such data should not, however, be used as a reason to postpone mainstreaming of a gender perspective into policies and programmes at all levels.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csw/csw1997.htm#chapII

 

CSW 1998

Annex I

SUMMARIES OF THE PANEL DISCUSSIONS ON THE CRITICAL AREAS OF CONCERN

Chairperson's summary

5. Several representatives emphasized the urgency of stepping up efforts to collect statistical data disaggregated by sex and on gender-specific indicators. Some reported progress in that regard, including the development by one country of a set of economic gender-equality indicators which provided benchmarks of women's and men's economic realities that were often overlooked.

Human rights of women: Moderator's summary

21. Several speakers noted that a gender perspective needed to be mainstreamed into all human rights activities and machineries at the national and international levels. More and better data collection, more systematic use of data, and more research on women's human rights issues were essential. Women's human rights needed to be an integral part of the development of economic, trade and fiscal policies. It was stated that economic indicators providing benchmarks of women's and men's economic realities, which were often overlooked, should be developed.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csw/csw1998.htm#ann1

 

CSW 1999

Institutional Mechanisms for the Advancement of Women

Institutional Mechanisms for the Advancement of Women Diagnosis

Strategic objective H.3. Generate and disseminate gender-disaggregated data and information for planning and evaluation

Actions to be taken

206. By national, regional and international statistical services and relevant governmental and United Nations agencies, in cooperation with research and documentation organizations, in their respective areas of responsibility:

a. Ensure that statistics related to individuals are collected, compiled, analysed and presented by sex and age and reflect problems, issues and questions related to women and men in society;

b. Collect, compile, analyse and present on a regular basis data disaggregated by age, sex, socio-economic and other relevant indicators, including number of dependants, for utilization in policy and programme planning and implementation;

c. Involve centres for women's studies and research organizations in developing and testing appropriate indicators and research methodologies to strengthen gender analysis, as well as in monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the goals of the Platform for Action;

d. Designate or appoint staff to strengthen gender-statistics programmes and ensure coordination, monitoring and linkage to all fields of statistical work, and prepare output that integrates statistics from the various subject areas;

e. Improve data collection on the full contribution of women and men to the economy, including their participation in the informal sector(s);

f. Develop a more comprehensive knowledge of all forms of work and employment by:

i. Improving data collection on the unremunerated work which is already included in the United Nations System of National Accounts, such as in agriculture, particularly subsistence agriculture, and other types of non-market production activities;

ii. Improving measurements that at present underestimate women's unemployment and underemployment in the labour market;

iii. Developing methods, in the appropriate forums, for assessing the value, in quantitative terms, of unremunerated work that is outside national accounts, such as caring for dependants and preparing food, for possible reflection in satellite or other official accounts that may be produced separately from but are consistent with core national accounts, with a view to recognizing the economic contribution of women and making visible the unequal distribution of remunerated and unremunerated work between women and men;

g. Develop an international classification of activities for time-use statistics that is sensitive to the differences between women and men in remunerated and unremunerated work, and collect data disaggregated by sex. At the national level, subject to national constraints:

i. Conduct regular time-use studies to measure, in quantitative terms, unremunerated work, including recording those activities that are performed simultaneously with remunerated or other unremunerated activities;

ii. Measure, in quantitative terms, unremunerated work that is outside national accounts, work to improve methods to assess its value, and accurately reflect its value in satellite or other official accounts which are separate from, but consistent with core national accounts;

h. Improve concepts and methods of data collection on the measurement of poverty among women and men, including their access to resources;

i. Strengthen vital statistical systems and incorporate gender analysis into publications and research; give priority to gender differences in research design and in data collection and analysis in order to improve data on morbidity; and improve data collection on access to health services, including access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services, maternal care and family planning, with special priority for adolescent mothers and for elder care;

j. Develop improved gender-disaggregated and age-specific data on the victims and perpetrators of all forms of violence against women, such as domestic violence, sexual harassment, rape, incest and sexual abuse, and trafficking in women and girls, as well as on violence by agents of the State;

k. Improve concepts and methods of data collection on the participation of women and men with disabilities, including their access to resources.

207. By Governments:

a. Ensure the regular production of a statistical publication on gender that presents and interprets topical data on women and men in a form suitable for a wide range of non-technical users;

b. Ensure that producers and users of statistics in each country regularly review the adequacy of the official statistical system and its coverage of gender issues, and prepare a plan for needed improvements, where necessary;

c. Develop and encourage the development of quantitative and qualitative studies by research organizations, trade unions, employers, the private sector and non-governmental organizations on the sharing of power and influence in society, including the number of women and men in senior decision-making positions in both the public and private sectors;

d. Use more gender-sensitive data in the formulation of policy and implementation of programmes and projects.

208. By the United Nations:

a. Promote the development of methods to find better ways to collect, collate and analyse data that may relate to the human rights of women, including violence against women, for use by all relevant United Nations bodies;

b. Promote the further development of statistical methods to improve data that relate to women in economic, social, cultural and political development;

c. Prepare a new issue of The World's Women at regular five-year intervals and distribute it widely;

d. Assist countries, upon request, in the development of gender policies and programmes;

e. Ensure that the relevant reports, data and publications of the Statistical Division of the United Nations Secretariat and the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women on progress at the national and international levels are transmitted to the Commission on the Status of Women in a regular and coordinated fashion.

209. By multilateral development institutions and bilateral donors:

Encourage and support the development of national capacity in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition by providing resources and technical assistance so that countries can fully measure the work done by women and men, including both remunerated and unremunerated work, and, where appropriate, use satellite or other official accounts for unremunerated work.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csw/csw1999.htm#ins

 

Commission on Social Development

CsocDev 1996

Chapter III. Substantive theme: Strategies and actions for the eradication of poverty

"19. Resources management initiatives

"62. Improved data for evaluating progress is being considered by the three task forces with a view to greater consistency in the respective indicators of progress achieved. In terms of output indicators, income inequality and gender-based distributional and demographic measures were stressed, and also infant mortality

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csocdev/csocdev96.htm

 

CSocDev 1997

Resolutions and decisions brought to the attention of the Council

AGREED CONCLUSIONS ON PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS

X. ADDITIONAL SPECIFIC FOLLOW-UP ACTIONS

37. Statistical databases and data collection at the national and international levels on key social indicators, including employment indicators, particularly in the informal sector, should be improved. In this regard, United Nations funds, programmes and agencies are urged to support and assist the efforts of developing countries, in particular the least developed countries. In the United Nations, the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) should have an increased role in the coordination of social indicators. Data reporting to ILO should be more regular, updated and complete.

38. The United Nations system's capacity for gathering and analysing information and developing indicators of social development should be strengthened, taking into account the work carried out by different countries, in particular developing countries. The capacity of the United Nations system for providing policy and technical support and advice, upon request, to improve national capacities in this regard should also be strengthened.

Chapter II. Follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development

Children with disabilities

Para 47.

'13. Requests relevant United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations to establish indicators to facilitate the monitoring of the implementation of the Standard Rules as they apply to children with disabilities;

Chapter II. Follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development

Translating intergovernmental decisions into country- and field-level activities

[…]

The Task Force on Basic Social Services for All is continuing its work on preparing guidelines for the use of resident coordinators as well as a compendium of relevant international commitments. It has issued information cards for advocacy and a wall chart of indicators on basic social needs and services. Detailed activities are conducted in the framework of working groups on primary health care, reproductive health, basic education, international migration and national capacity in monitoring child and maternal mortality.

The Inter-Agency Committee on Women and Gender Equality has among its concerns the objective of ensuring the mainstreaming of gender and has established links for this purpose with the Task Forces. The Committee has also elaborated indicators for monitoring the gender issue.

Chapter II. Follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development

Cooperation in the United Nations system

Information, indicators and evaluation

The lack of common definitions, indicators and databases continued to impede efforts. The lack of a common United Nations system database was considered particularly serious, although it was noted that in the development of policy at the national level this did not necessarily present a major hindrance.

The work of the task forces, nevertheless, revealed rich experience of collaboration in the areas of statistics, development of indicators, exchange of information and efforts at standardization of definitions. The quantitative targets referred to were one reflection of this. Gender indicators provided another example. But it was also noted that there were many formidable problems, conceptual and practical, in arriving at greater overall coherence. Also, the traditional indicators sometimes provided an inadequate picture of reality; a case in point being unemployment, where it was possible for low levels of unemployment to coexist with mass poverty.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/wssd/sdcomm/sdcomm97.htm

 

CsocDev 1997

Resolutions and decisions brought to the attention of the Council

AGREED CONCLUSIONS ON PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS

X. ADDITIONAL SPECIFIC FOLLOW-UP ACTIONS

37. Statistical databases and data collection at the national and international levels on key social indicators, including employment indicators, particularly in the informal sector, should be improved. In this regard, United Nations funds, programmes and agencies are urged to support and assist the efforts of developing countries, in particular the least developed countries. In the United Nations, the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) should have an increased role in the coordination of social indicators. Data reporting to ILO should be more regular, updated and complete.

38. The United Nations system's capacity for gathering and analysing information and developing indicators of social development should be strengthened, taking into account the work carried out by different countries, in particular developing countries. The capacity of the United Nations system for providing policy and technical support and advice, upon request, to improve national capacities in this regard should also be strengthened.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csocdev/csocdev97.htm#D.

Chapter II. Follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development

62. The summary of the dialogue with the chairpersons* of the inter-agency task forces on follow-up to international conferences is set out below.

The Task Force on Basic Social Services for All is continuing its work on preparing guidelines for the use of resident coordinators as well as a compendium of relevant international commitments. It has issued information cards for advocacy and a wall chart of indicators on basic social needs and services. Detailed activities are conducted in the framework of working groups on primary health care, reproductive health, basic education, international migration and national capacity in monitoring child and maternal mortality.

The Inter-Agency Committee on Women and Gender Equality has among its concerns the objective of ensuring the mainstreaming of gender and has established links for this purpose with the Task Forces. The Committee has also elaborated indicators for monitoring the gender issue.

Cooperation in the United Nations system

Information, indicators and evaluation

The lack of common definitions, indicators and databases continued to impede efforts. The lack of a common United Nations system database was considered particularly serious, although it was noted that in the development of policy at the national level this did not necessarily present a major hindrance.

The work of the task forces, nevertheless, revealed rich experience of collaboration in the areas of statistics, development of indicators, exchange of information and efforts at standardization of definitions. The quantitative targets referred to were one reflection of this. Gender indicators provided another example. But it was also noted that there were many formidable problems, conceptual and practical, in arriving at greater overall coherence. Also, the traditional indicators sometimes provided an inadequate picture of reality; a case in point being unemployment, where it was possible for low levels of unemployment to coexist with mass poverty.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/csocdev/csocdev97.htm

 

Commission on Human Settlements

CHS 1995

15/1. Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000 The Commission on Human Settlements

4. Recommends that Governments adopt a system for monitoring the impact of national shelter strategies on the supply of housing and on the development of living conditions by applying appropriate housing indicators as a means of assessing the performance of the national shelter sector, taking into account local conditions and sensitivity to gender considerations;

5. Urges Governments to use these indicators when preparing their national report for the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), as well as apply them in order to prepare annual progress reports which indicate in quantitative terms the impact of the new strategies, and to publicize them within their countries, particularly on World Habitat Day, and also to submit them annually to the Executive Director of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat);

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/chs/chs1995.htm

15/6. Urban and housing performance indicators

The Commission on Human Settlements,

Recalling its resolution 13/9 of 8 May 1991, in which it requested the Executive Director of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) to complete the design of and test the internationally comparable set of policy-sensitive shelter sector indicators under development by the Centre and the World Bank, as part of the assessment procedure for monitoring the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000,

Recalling also its resolution 14/13 of 5 May 1993, in which it decided to urge the acceleration of a plan for nationwide coverage and globalization of the Shelter Sector Indicators Programme, as set out in the report of the Executive Director on Shelter Sector Performance Indicators, o/

Recognizing the importance of many vital issues relating to human settlements, including poverty, productivity, infrastructure, transport, the environment, local government and urban sustainability issues, as well as housing issues which are the subject of the shelter sector indicators,

Taking note of the report of the Expert Group Meeting on Urban Indicators for Country Reporting, p/ submitted to the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) at its first session, which considered the development of a set of urban indicators to extend and complement the shelter sector indicators,

Aware of the decision of the Preparatory Committee to strengthen the capacity of institutions at all levels to monitor shelter conditions and urbanization processes using a minimum set of substantially uniform and consistent indicators, q/ and to encourage participating countries to produce a factual description and analysis of the quality, quantity, availability, accessibility and affordability of shelter and diagnose human settlements conditions through these indicators, r/

Having considered the report of the Executive Director on urban and housing indicators, s/ and the supplementary report on developments in urban and housing indicators, t/ which describe the development of a complete system of urban and housing indicators, including a minimal set of key indicators, their uses as an analytical and monitoring tool on behalf of all stakeholders involved in the urban and shelter sectors, and progress towards collecting the indicators worldwide,

1. Commends the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) for its efforts in developing a complete system of internationally comparable policy-sensitive urban and housing indicators designed as an analytical tool to assist all stakeholders in monitoring progress towards achieving urban and shelter sector objectives;

2. Welcomes the establishment of an Indicators Programme within the Centre which aims at encouraging all countries and cities to utilize and further develop urban and housing indicators as a tool for monitoring progress towards meeting national and city objectives, and to make use of the system of indicators developed by the Centre as the basis for monitoring systems of performance indicators;

3. Endorses the list of key indicators contained in the supplementary report on developments in urban and housing indicators and in the report to the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) on guidelines for national preparations, u/ being nine key background data indicators, twenty-seven key urban indicators and ten key housing indicators, as the minimal set of indicators to be collected as part of the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), and urges Governments, as part of their preparations for the Conference, to collect at least the key indicators from the indicators system for one or more cities and at the national level, and to use these and other indicators as the quantitative basis for country reporting on the status of human settlements for the Conference;

4. Recommends that actors at all levels, including non-governmental organizations, the private sector and, in particular, local and regional governments, be involved in the development and collection of indicators to meet local needs and monitor local conditions, and that national Governments maintain an enabling and coordinating role to permit the full utilization of local capacity in the process of developing, maintaining and using indicators as part of policy monitoring and evaluation;

5. Recommends that countries in a position to do so provide a financial contribution to the Centre so that requesting Governments can be supported in indicators collection as part of the preparations for the Conference and as a long-term capacity-building strategy for monitoring the urban and housing sectors;

6. Requests the Executive Director of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) to establish a global housing and urban observatory that would permit comparative international evaluation of progress in meeting the aims of the Global Action Plan which is to be adopted by the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), and which would draw attention to and provide information on human settlements conditions worldwide;

7. Also requests the Executive Director to initiate action to introduce urban and housing indicators into global reports and international indicator systems, specifically the Global Report on Human Settlements, the World Development Report, the Indicators for Sustainable Development system coordinated by the Commission for Sustainable Development as part of the implementation of Agenda 21, v/ and any other reports or indicator systems published or collected on a regular basis, to focus attention on human settlements and their importance for the sustainable development of national economies;

8. Further requests the Executive Director to report to the Commission at its sixteenth session on the implementation of the recommendations of the present resolution.

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/chs/chs1995.htm

 

CHS 1997

16/1. Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000

"The General Assembly,

"4. Recommends that Governments extend the application of urban and housing indicators to cities and rural settlements for monitoring the progress of their national shelter strategy and the performance of the shelter sector, taking into account local conditions and sensitivity to gender considerations;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/chs/chs1997.htm

 

CHS 1999

Annex I

A. Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Commission at its seventeenth session

A. Resolutions

1. Resolution requiring action by the General Assembly

17/1 Follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II)

Bearing in mind the outcome of a seminar on the theme "Monitoring the implementation of the Habitat Agenda and the use of indicators", organized at the initiative of the Dutch Habitat Platform Foundation on 30 March 1999, and the important role of the Global Urban Observatory in the process of monitoring,

17/8 The State of the World’s Cities: 1999

5. Also invites the Executive Director, through appropriate consultative processes:

(a) To improve the list of universal urban indicators by adding appropriate key indicators on poverty, environment, gender equality and governance and, where necessary, minimum sets of region-specific indicators;

17/11 Women in human settlements development and in the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat

Noting that in the strategic vision for a revitalized United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)4 it is recommended that one of the primary indicators of the success of the interventions of the Centre and an explicit focus for its policy work be the empowerment of women,

1. Requests that the empowerment of women as one of the primary indicators put forth in the strategic vision for a revitalized United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) be translated into clear policy and action and promptly implemented in the Centre’s work;

http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/Women/un-doku/un-comm/chs/chs1999.htm

 

 

UN Agencies Reports

UN WomenWatch / Statistics and Indicators:

Women in government, population indicators, literacy, employment, education, etc.

http://www.un.org/womenwatch/statists/index.html

 

UNIFEM

Progress of the World's Women Report 2000:

Latest data, analyses, etc.

http://www.unifem.undp.org/progressww/index.html

 

United Nations Statistics Division

The World's Women 2000: Trends and Statistics

http://www.unifem.undp.org/progressww/index.html

 

UNDP Report

Women's Political Participation and Good Governance: 21st Century Challenges

http://www.un.org/womenwatch/statists/index.html

 

UNDP Human Development Report

http://www.undp.org/hdro/

 

1999 Globalization with a Human Face

1998 Consumption for Human Development

1997 Human Development to Eradicate Poverty

1996 Economic Growth and Human Development

1995 Gender and Human Development

1994 New Dimensions of Human Security

1993 People's Participation

1992 Global Dimensions of Human Development

1991 Financing Human Development

1990 Concept and Measurement of Human Development

 

Frequently Asked Questions About the Human Development Indicators

http://www.undp.org/hdr2000/english/FAQs.html

 

Such as:

What is the HDI?

The Human Development Index measures a country's achievements in three aspects of human development: longevity, knowledge, and a decent standard of living.

Longevity is measured by life expectancy at birth; knowledge is measured by a combination of the adult literacy rate and the combined gross primary, secondary, and tertiary enrolment ratio; and standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita (PPP US$).

How is the Human Development Index used?

To capture the attention of policy makers, media and NGOs and to draw their attention away from the more usual economic statistics to focus on human outcomes, not economic data-to re-emphasize that people and their lives should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth or interest rates.

To question national policy choices - asking how two countries with the same level of income per person can end up with such different human development outcomes (HDI levels). For example, Viet Nam and Guinea have similar levels of income per person, but life expectancy and literacy differ greatly between the two countries, with Viet Nam having a much higher HDI value than Guinea (see p. 148, figure 2). Likewise, South Africa and El Salvador have very similar HDI values-but income per person in El Salvador is only half that of South Africa (see p.149, table 3). These striking contrasts immediately stimulate debate on government policies on health and education, asking why what is achieved in one country is far from the reach of another.

To highlight wide differences within countries, across regions and races. Why in Nepal do Muslims have less than half the level of human development of Newars (p. 97)? Why in China is the HDI in the province of Qinghai barely half that of Shanghai (p.153)? Highlighting such internal disparities has raised national debate in many countries.

What is the GDI?

The GDI (Gender-related Development Index) measures the same variables as the HDI except that the GDI adjusts for gender inequalities in the three aspects of human development.

The GDI uses the same variables as the HDI. The difference is that the GDI adjusts the average achievement of each country in life expectancy, literacy and gross enrolment, and income in accordance with the disparity in achievement between men and women.

What is the GEM?

The Gender Empowerment Measure also measures gender inequality, but in economic and political spheres of activity.

GEM: Economic participation and decision making is measured by the percentage of female administrators and managers, and professional and technical workers. Political participation and decision making are measured by the percentage of seats in parliament held by women. Power over economic resources is measured by Women's GDP per capita (PPP US$).

How are the GDI and the GEM used?

To draw attention to gender issues

The GDI, like the HDI, shows average national level of human development - but with additional focus on gender. A comparison of country ranking by HDI and GDI shows the level of gender discrepancies there is in a country.

To show that gender empowerment does not depend on income

Women's empowerment does not depend on the level of national income.

* Belize ranks 40th in the GEM, just ahead of Japan, in 41st place, yet income per person in Belize is less than one fourth that of Japan's ($4,600 vs. $23,300).

* The UK and Finland have very similar income per person ($20,400 and $20,900) yet in the GEM Finland ranks 5th, the UK 15th (see. pp 165-168).

To highlight gender empowerment differences within countries

Even within countries, gender empowerment can vary widely across regions. In Peru in 1995, women's opportunities greatly depended on whether they lived in Lima or Cajamarca (see pp. 155, fig. 6).

What are the HPI-1 and the HPI-2?

Poverty has traditionally been measured as a lack of income - but this is far too narrow a definition. Human poverty is a far more current concept that captures the many dimensions of poverty that exist in both poor and rich countries. The HPI-1 (Human Poverty Index for developing countries) measures deprivations in the same three aspects of human development as the HDI (longevity, life expectancy, and a decent standard of living). HPI-2 (Human Poverty Index for industrialised countries) includes, in addition to these dimensions, social exclusion.

HPI-1(developing countries): deprivations in longevity are measured by the percentage of newborns not expected to survive to age 40. Deprivations in knowledge are measured by the percentage of adults who are illiterate. Deprivations in a decent standard of living are measured by three variables: the percentage of people without access to safe water, the percentage of people without access to health services, and the percentage of moderately and severely underweight children below the age of five.

HPI-2 (industrialised countries): deprivations in longevity are measured by the percentage of newborns not expected to survive to age 60. Deprivations in knowledge are measured by the percentage of people who are functionally illiterate. Deprivations in a decent standard of living are measured by the percentage of people living below the income poverty line, set at 50% of the median disposable household income. Social exclusion is measured by the rate of long-term (12 months or more) unemployment of the labour force. (Note the HPI-2 is used for all OECD countries except the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, Poland, and Turkey.)

How is the Human Poverty Index used?

To focus attention on the most deprived people in a country, not on average national achievement.

The Human Poverty Indices focus directly on the number of people living in deprivation - presenting a very different picture from average national achievement. It also moves the focus of poverty debates away from concern about income poverty alone.

To highlight the presence of human poverty in every single country.

High income per person is no guarantee of a poverty-free country. Even among the richest industrial countries, there is human poverty (see p. fig. 5.3, p. 97). The Human Poverty Index for industrial countries (HPI-2) shows that out of 17 European and North American countries, the US has the highest level of income per person - but also the highest rate of human poverty (see p. 172).

To guide national planning for poverty alleviation.

Many National Human Development Reports now break down the HPI by district level or language group to identify the areas or social groups within the country most deprived in terms of human poverty. The results can be dramatic, creating national debate and helping to reshape policies.

What is the impact of the Report on development?

Since its inception in 1990, the Human Development Report has helped to put people, rather than economics, at the center of development debates. Economic expansion and higher incomes are not the end goal of development, but rather, the report urges, are people's needs, aspirations and capabilities. Human development seeks to enlarge people's choices by concentrating not only on the end goal of development, but also the means of attaining people's goals through participation, equity, productivity and sustainability.

General Information

Is the HDI enough to measure a country's level of development?

Not at all. The concept of human development is much broader than can be captured in the HDI, or any other of the indices (GDI, GEM and HPI). The HDI, for example, does not reflect political participation or gender inequalities. The HPI-2, measuring human poverty in the richest countries, shows surprising results. The United States, with the highest GDP per capita, also has the highest extent of deprivations. The indices can only offer a broad proxy on the issues of human development, gender, and human poverty. A fuller picture of a country's level of human development requires analysis of other human development indicators and information.

Can GDP be used to measure human development instead of the HDI?

No. GDP per capita only reflects average national income. It tells nothing of how that income is distributed. And it tells nothing of how that income is spent - whether it is spent on universal health and education or for military expenditures. Comparing GDP per capita and HDI can reveal much about national policy choices. For example, a country with a very high GDP per capita such as Qatar has a lower HDI rank because of a lower level of educational attainment. Antigua and Barbuda have roughly half the GDP per capita of Qatar but have a higher HDI rank.

Why is GDP per capita (PPP US$) used over GDP per capita (US$)?

The human development index (HDI) attempts to make an assessment of 174 very diverse countries, with very different price levels. GDP per capita (PPP US$) accounts for price differences between countries and therefore better reflects people's living standards. In theory, at the PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) rate, 1 PPP dollar has the same purchasing power in the domestic economy as 1 US dollar has in the US economy.

Is the HDI comparable over time?

Yes, the HDI is comparable over time. HDR 2000 presents a time series in HDI for 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1998. This time series uses the latest methodology and most up-to-date data.

Is the HDI comparable across Human Development Reports?

Due to updates in the data series, as well as changes in the methodology of the HDI, the HDI presented in the 1990 through 2000 reports is not comparable over time. However, as the above answer indicates, time series data is available in Table 6 of Human Development Report 2000.

Why was the HDI methodology changed?

The methodology of the HDI has evolved and improved over time. In 1999, the formula used to treat the income component of the HDI was significantly refined, setting the methodology on a more solid analytical foundation.

Why isn't the HDI compiled for all UN member countries? Why aren't all the countries included in the GDI, GEM, and HPI?

While the data in the report demonstrate the wealth of human development statistics available, they also show many gaps in data on critical human development issues. Not all UN member countries have sufficient data available to calculate the HDI or other indices. However, for the UN member countries for whom the HDI cannot be calculated basic indicators (where available) are shown in table 32 of the 2000 Report. Lack of data is a particular constraint in monitoring gender disparity and poverty. Coverage of the GDI is limited to 143 countries, GEM to 70 countries, and the HPI-1 and HPI-2 to 103 countries.

Why doesn't the HDI include dimensions of participation, gender, and equality?

The HDI is designed to reflect average achievements in three aspects of human development-leading a long life, being knowledgeable, and enjoying a decent standard of living. Participation, gender, and equality are measured in other indices of the Human Development Report. Participation and gender are measured by the GEM. Gender equality is measured by the GDI and inequality is measured by the HPI.

 

 

Criteria for Compilations of International Agreements
In order to enable our effective input to CSD-9, we have compiled "packages" (compilations) of international agreements on the issue of Information for decision-making and participation / Indicators of sustainable development


The packages has been compiled with a particular view on gender issues. We have tried to include the most relevant paragraphs from all the major UN conferences of the last decade and their follow-up processes:

Sustainable Development/Rio process,

Human Rights/ Vienna process,

Population/ Cairo process,

Social Development/ Copenhagen process,

Women/ Beijing process,

Human Settlements/ Istanbul process,

as well as reports from various Commission meetings, Conventions, and other official UN Documents.


In every case, we have provided LINKS to the full document where we found relevant paragraphs on the issue.

In the package on Information / Indicators for Sustainable Development, we have also quoted paragraphs that do not have a particular gender perspective.

We have tried to be fairly inclusive but have not quoted every para where, for example, energy is mentioned and limited the QUOTES mostly to those which mention gender / women. We tried to leave out repetitious paragraphs. Also, we have not quoted every para that has the notorious sentence on ‘particularly women and other vulnerable groups’.

                                                  Download the compilation on Information / Indicators as a txt file (110 KB)