Energy International Agreements

Background Papers

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International Agreements on Energy
(with a particular focus on agreements related to gender issues)

Criteria for Compilations of International Agreements


The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Article 4
Commitments 1(c), 8 (h), 10

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Article 2
Para 1 (i, iv, viii,)
Article 10, Para b (i)


Agenda 21
Chapter 1. Preamble
Para 1.7.


Agenda 21
Chapter 4. Changing Consumption Pattern
Para 4.2.
Para 4.10 (d)

Activities (a)
Para 4.18
Para 4.18 (d)
Para 4.24


Means of implementation
4.27. This programme is concerned primarily with changes in unsustainable patterns of consumption and production and values that encourage sustainable consumption patterns and lifestyles. It requires the combined efforts of Governments, consumers and producers. Particular attention should be paid to the significant role played by women and households as consumers and the potential impacts of their combined purchasing power on the economy.

Agenda 21
Chapter 5. Demographic Dynamics and Sustainability
Programme Areas
A. Developing and disseminating knowledge concerning the links between demographic trends and factors and sustainable development
Basis for action
Para 5.3.


Agenda 21
Chapter 6. Protection and Promotion of Human Health
E. Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards

Para 6.39

Para 6.41 (j) Industry and energy production (i-iv)


Agenda 21
Chapter 7. Promoting Sustainable Human Settlement Development
I. Introduction
[chapters re urban development, infrastructure, containing sentences"…particularly women" not included]
Para 7.1., 7.24, 7.27, 7.40, 7.46, 7.47, 7.48, 7.49, 7.50
7.51.a(i, ii, iv), b(i,ii)
7.52 (f)
7.54 (a,c)
7.69 (c)
7.70 (b)


Agenda 21
Chapter 8. Integrating Environment and Development in Decision-Making
A. Integrating environment and development at the policy, planning and management levels

Para 8.2.

Para 8.33. (a)

Para 8.47


Agenda 21
Section II. Conservation and Management of Resources for Development

Chapter 9. Protection of the Atmosphere


Agenda 21
Chapter 12. Managing Fragile Ecosystems: Combating Desertification and Drought

Para 12.12 (a)

Para 12.17 (d)

12.18 (h)


Agenda 21
Chapter 13. Managing Fragile Ecosystems: Sustainable Mountain Development

Para 13.1.

Para 13.22 (b)


Agenda 21
Chapter 14. Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development
K. Rural energy transition to enhance productivity

Para 14.93

Para 14.101


Agenda 21
Chapter 17. Protection of the Oceans, All Kinds of Seas, Including Enclosed and Semi-Enclosed Seas, and Coastal Areas and the Protection, Rational Use and development of Their Living Resources

Para 17.73


Agenda 21
Chapter 21. Environmentally Sound Management of Solid Wastes and Sewage-Related Issues

Para 21.14 (f)

Para 21.19 (d)

Para 21.20 (c)


(a) Management-related activities
21.19. Governments and institutions and non-governmental organizations, including consumer, women's and youth groups, in collaboration with appropriate organizations of the United Nations system, should launch programmes to demonstrate and make operational enhanced waste reuse and recycling. These programmes should, wherever possible, build upon existing or planned activities and should: […]

21.25 Training will be required to reorient current waste management practices to include waste reuse and recycling. Governments, in collaboration with United Nations international and regional organizations, should undertake the following indicative list of actions:

(d) Encouraging non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations and women's, youth and public interest group programmes, in collaboration with local municipal authorities, to mobilize community support for waste reuse and recycling through focused community-level campaigns.

21.46. Research activities could be enhanced. Countries, in cooperation with appropriate international organizations and non-governmental organizations, should, for instance:

(c) Launch campaigns to encourage active community participation involving women's and youth groups in the management of waste, particularly household waste;


Agenda 21
Chapter 30. Strengthening the Role of Business and Industry

Activities 30.10 (a)


Agenda 21
Chapter 32. Strengthening the Role of Farmers *
Programme Area

Para 32.5 (d)

Para 32.12 (a)



32.2. The rural household, indigenous people and their communities, and the family farmer, a substantial number of whom are women, have been the stewards of much of the Earth's resources. Farmers must conserve their physical environment as they depend on it for their sustenance. Over the past 20 years there has been impressive increase in aggregate agricultural production. Yet, in some regions, this increase has been outstripped by population growth or international debt or falling commodity prices. Further, the natural resources that sustain farming activity need proper care, and there is a growing concern about the sustainability of agricultural production systems.

32.4. The sustainable development of people in marginal and fragile ecosystems is also addressed in Agenda 21. The key to the successful implementation of these programmes lies in the motivation and attitudes of individual farmers and government policies that would provide incentives to farmers to manage their natural resources efficiently and in a sustainable way. Farmers, particularly women, face a high degree of economic, legal and institutional uncertainties when investing in their land and other resources. The decentralization of decision-making towards local and community organizations is the key in changing people's behaviour and implementing sustainable farming strategies. This programme area deals with activities which can contribute to this end.

32.5. The following objectives are proposed:
(b) To support and enhance the legal capacity of women and vulnerable groups with regard to access, use and tenure of land;

32.8. Governments and farmers' organizations should:
(c) Develop pilot projects and extension services that would seek to build on the needs and knowledge base of women farmers.


Agenda 21
Chapter 34. Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology, Cooperation and Capacity-Building

Activities 34.15


Agenda 21
Chapter 35. Science for Sustainable Development

35.2. Scientists are improving their understanding in areas such as climatic change, growth in rates of resource consumption, demographic trends, and environmental degradation. Changes in those and other areas need to be taken into account in working out long-term strategies for development. A first step towards improving the scientific basis for these strategies is a better understanding of land, oceans, atmosphere and their interlocking water, nutrient and biogeochemical cycles and energy flows which all form part of the Earth system. This is essential if a more accurate estimate is to be provided of the carrying capacity of the planet Earth and of its resilience under the many stresses placed upon it by human activities. The sciences can provide this understanding through increased research into the underlying ecological processes and through the application of modern, effective and efficient tools that are now available, such as remote-sensing devices, robotic monitoring instruments and computing and modelling capabilities. The sciences are playing an important role in linking the fundamental significance of the Earth system as life support to appropriate strategies for development which build on its continued functioning. The sciences should continue to play an increasing role in providing for an improvement in the efficiency of resource utilization and in finding new development practices, resources, and alternatives. There is a need for the sciences constantly to reassess and promote less intensive trends in resource utilization, including less intensive utilization of energy in industry, agriculture, and transportation. Thus, the sciences are increasingly being understood as an essential component in the search for feasible pathways towards sustainable development.

B. Enhancing scientific understanding
Basis for Action

35.10. In order to promote sustainable development, more extensive knowledge is required of the Earth's carrying capacity, including the processes that could either impair or enhance its ability to support life. The global environment is changing more rapidly than at any time in recent centuries; as a result, surprises may be expected, and the next century could see significant environmental changes. At the same time, the human consumption of energy, water and non-renewable resources is increasing, on both a total and a per capita basis, and shortages may ensue in many parts of the world even if environmental conditions were to remain unchanged. Social processes are subject to multiple variations across time and space, regions and culture. They both affect and are influenced by changing environmental conditions. Human factors are key driving forces in these intricate sets of relationships and exert their influence directly on global change. Therefore, study of the human dimensions of the causes and consequences of environmental change and of more sustainable development paths is essential.


35.17. The following activities should be undertaken:

(a) Coordinate existing data- and statistics-gathering systems relevant to developmental and environmental issues so as to support preparation of long-term scientific assessments - for example, data on resource depletion, import/export flows, energy use, health impacts and demographic trends; apply the data obtained through the activities identified in programme area B to environment/development assessments at the global, regional and local levels; and promote the wide distribution of the assessments in a form that is responsive to public needs and can be widely understood;


35.21. The primary objective is to improve the scientific capacities of all countries - in particular, those of developing countries - with specific regard to:

(b) A substantial increase by the year 2000 in the number of scientists - particularly women scientists - in those developing countries where their number is at present insufficient;

35.25. Capacity-building includes the following:

(b) Enhancing national, regional and global capacities for carrying out scientific research and applying scientific and technological information to environmentally sound and sustainable development. This includes a need to increase financial resources for global and regional scientific and technological information networks, as may be appropriate, so that they will be able to function effectively and efficiently in satisfying the scientific needs of developing countries. Ensure the capacity-building of women by recruiting more women in research and research training.

Agenda 21
Chapter 39. International Legal Instruments and Mechanisms
Basis for action
A. Review, assessment and fields of action in international law for sustainable development

Para 39.7


Earth Summit II
Chapter 2. Assessment of Progress Made Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 4/, 5/

Para 10

Para 12. The major groups have demonstrated what can be achieved by taking committed action, sharing resources and building consensus, reflecting grass-roots concern and involvement. The efforts of local authorities are making Agenda 21 and the pursuit of sustainable development a reality at the local level through the implementation of "local Agenda 21s" and other sustainable development programmes. Non-governmental organizations, educational institutions, the scientific community and the media have increased public awareness and discussion of the relations between environment and development in all countries. The involvement, role and responsibilities of business and industry, including transnational corporations, are important. Hundreds of small and large businesses have made "green business" a new operating mode. Workers and trade unions have established partnerships with employers and communities to encourage sustainable development in the workplace. Farmer-led initiatives have resulted in improved agricultural practices contributing to sound resource management. Indigenous people have played an increasing role in addressing issues affecting their interests and particularly concerning their traditional knowledge and practices. Young people and women around the world have played a prominent role in galvanizing communities into recognizing their responsibilities to future generations. Nevertheless, more opportunities should be created for women to participate effectively in economic, social and political development as equal partners in all sectors of the economy.


Earth Summit II

Chapter 3. A. Integration of economic, social and environmental objectives

Para 24

Changing consumption and production patterns

Para 28 (f)


Earth Summit II

Chapter 3. B. Sectors and issues, Para 33.

Forests, Para 37

Energy, Para 42-46 (a-h)

Transport, Para 47, Para 47 (d)

Radioactive wastes, Para 60


Earth Summit II
Chapter 4. International Institutional Arrangement
Para 135


The Earth Summit 1992: The Forest Principles
Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests

Chapter 6 (a), (d)


International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)
Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development
Chapter 3 : Interrelationships between Population, Sustained Economic Growth and Sustainable Development
A. Integrating population and development strategies
Basis for action

Chapter 3.3.


International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)
Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development
Chapter 9 : Population Distribution, Urbanization and Internal Migration
B. Population growth in large urban agglomerations

Para 9.18


3rd World Conference on Women, Nairobi 1985
The Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women

Food, water and agriculture

174. Women, as key food producers in many regions of the world, play a central role in the development and production of food and agriculture, participating actively in all phases of the production cycle, including the conservation, storage, processing and marketing of food and agricultural products. Women therefore make a vital contribution to economic development, particularly in agriculturally based economies, which must be better recognized and rewarded. Development strategies and programmes, as well as incentive programmes and projects in the field of food and agriculture, need to be designed in a manner that fully integrates women at all levels of planning, implementation, monitoring evaluation in all stages of the development process of a project cycle, so as to facilitate and enhance this key role of women and to ensure that women receive proper benefits and remuneration commensurate with their important contribution in this field. Moreover, women should be fully integrated and involved in the technological research and energy aspects of food and agricultural development.

176. Governments should establish multisectoral programmes to promote the productive capacity of rural poor women in food and animal production, create off-farm employment opportunities, reduce their work-load, inter alia, by supporting the establishment of adequate child-care facilities and that of their children, reverse their pauperization, improve their access to all sources of energy, and provide them with adequate water, health, education, effective extension services and transportation within their region. In this connection it should be noted that the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, held at Rome in 1979, 12/ recognized women's vital role in the socio-economic life in both agricultural and non-agricultural activities as a prerequisite for successful rural development policies, planning and programmes, and proposed specific measures for improving their condition, which are still valid. The Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women also included specific measures to improve the situation of women in food and agriculture, which remain a valid guide for action.

184. Appropriate food-processing technologies can free women from time- and energy-consuming tasks and thus effect improvements in their health. Appropriate technologies can also increase the productivity and income of women, either directly or by freeing them to engage in other activities. Such technologies should be designed and introduced, however, in a manner that ensures women's access to the new technology and to its benefits and does not displace women from means of livelihood when alternative opportunities are not available. Appropriate labour-saving technologies should utilize local human and material resources and inexpensive sources of energy. The design, testing and dissemination of the technology should be appropriate also to the women who will be the users. Non-governmental organizations can play a valuable role in this process. Appropriate and affordable food-processing technologies should be made widely available to rural women, along with appropriate and affordable storage, marketing and transportation facilities to reduce post-harvest and income losses. Information on improved methods which have been ecologically confirmed of reducing post-harvest food loss and of preserving and conserving food products should be widely disseminated.


189. The problems related to the industrial development of the developing countries reflect the dependent nature of their economies and the need to promote transformation industries based on domestic agricultural production as a fundamental issue of development. Women are an important part of the agricultural work-forces therefore, there should be special interest in the promotion of the technical training of women in this particular field. In this respect, Governments should take into account the following recommendations:

(a) There should be a link between agriculture and industry;

(b) Steps should be taken to eliminate the particular obstacles to industrialization and to the participation of women in industry, such as energy, the limited markets of some developing countries, the rural exodus, poor infrastructure, a lack of technical know-how, the dependence of the industries of some countries and a lack of financial resources;


218. Measures developed to rationalize energy consumption and to improve energy systems, especially of hydrocarbons, and to increase technical training should be formulated with a view to women as producers, users and managers of energy sources.

219. In conventional and non-conventional national energy programmes, women should be integrated as contributors and beneficiaries with a view to their needs, as determined by specific socio-cultural factors at local and national levels and in both rural and urban contexts. Assessment of new energy sources, energy technologies and energy-delivery systems should specifically consider the reduction of the drudgery that constitutes a large part of the work of poor urban and rural women.

220. The grass-roots participation of women in energy-needs assessment, technology and energy conservation, management and maintenance efforts should be supported.

221. Priority should be given to substituting energy for muscle in the performance of the industrial and domestic work of women without loss of their jobs and tasks to men. In view of the high percentage of domestic use in total energy consumption in low-income countries, the implications of increasing energy costs, and the current threats posed by inflation, immediate attention should be directed towards action concerning adapted technologies, fuel conservation and improved or new sources of energy, such as biomass, solar and wind energy, geothermal and nuclear energy, as well as mini-hydroelectric power plants. Improved stoves should be designed and disseminated to reduce the drudgery involved in the collection of fuel by women.

222. In order to prevent depletion of the forest areas on which most rural women rely for much of their energy needs and income, innovative programmes, such as farm woodlot development, should be initiated with the involvement of both women and men. In the commercialization of fuelwood energy, measures should be taken to avoid the loss of women's income to middlemen and urban industries. Development of fuelwood plantations, diffusion of fast-growing varieties of trees and technologies for more efficient production of charcoal should be accelerated with a view to poor rural and urban women being the major beneficiaries. The use of solar energy and biogas should be promoted with due regard to affordability, as well as to use and management by women who are the principal consumers.

223. The involvement of women at all levels of decision-making and implementation of energy-related decisions including peaceful use of nuclear energy should be enhanced. Special efforts should be made by Governments and non-governmental organizations to provide women and women's organizations with information on all sources and uses of energy, including nuclear energy. Special incentives should be provided to enable women to obtain advanced levels of education and training in all energy-related areas in order to expand their participation in decision-making relating to the application of nuclear technology for peaceful uses especially in high priority development areas of water, health, energy, food production and nutrition. To achieve these goals, increased opportunities and encouragement should be given to women to study science, mathematics and engineering at the university level and for girls to study mathematics and science at the pre-university level.


The Fourth World Conference on Women
Chapter 1. Resolution 1. Annex II - The Beijing Platform for Action
IV. Strategic Objectives and Actions
F. Women and the economy

Strategic objective F.2.

Facilitate women's equal access to resources, employment, markets and trade Actions to be taken
167. By Governments, central banks and national development banks, and private banking institutions, as appropriate:
(d) Ensure that women's priorities are included in public investment programmes for economic infrastructure, such as water and sanitation, electrification and energy conservation, transport and road construction; promote greater involvement of women beneficiaries at the project planning and implementation stages to ensure access to jobs and contracts.


The Fourth World Conference on Women
Chapter 1. Resolution 1. Annex II - The Beijing Platform for Action
IV. Strategic Objectives and Actions

K. Women and the environment


particularly the following chapters:

Strategic objective K.2.

Integrate gender concerns and perspectives in policies and programmes for sustainable development Actions to be taken
256. By Governments:
(a) Integrate women, including indigenous women, their perspectives and knowledge, on an equal basis with men, in decision-making regarding sustainable resource management and the development of policies and programmes for sustainable development, including in particular those designed to address and prevent environmental degradation of the land;
(b) Evaluate policies and programmes in terms of environmental impact and women's equal access to and use of natural resources;
(c) Ensure adequate research to assess how and to what extent women are particularly susceptible or exposed to environmental degradation and hazards, including, as necessary, research and data collection on specific groups of women, particularly women with low income, indigenous women and women belonging to minorities;
(d) Integrate rural women's traditional knowledge and practices of sustainable resource use and management in the development of environmental management and extension programmes;
(e) Integrate the results of gender-sensitive research into mainstream policies with a view to developing sustainable human settlements;
(f) Promote knowledge of and sponsor research on the role of women, particularly rural and indigenous women, in food gathering and production, soil conservation, irrigation, watershed management, sanitation, coastal zone and marine resource management, integrated pest management, land-use planning, forest conservation and community forestry, fisheries, natural disaster prevention, and new and renewable sources of energy, focusing particularly on indigenous women's knowledge and experience;
(k) Support the development of women's equal access to housing infrastructure, safe water, and sustainable and affordable energy technologies, such as wind, solar, biomass and other renewable sources, through participatory needs assessments, energy planning and policy formulation at the local and national levels

Strategic objective K.3.

Strengthen or establish mechanisms at the national, regional and international levels to assess the impact of development and environmental policies on women Actions to be taken
258. By Governments, regional and international organizations and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate:
(c) Ensure the full compliance with relevant international obligations, including where relevant, the Basel Convention and other conventions relating to the transboundary movements of hazardous wastes (which include toxic wastes) and the Code of Practice of the International Atomic Energy Agency relating to the movement of radioactive waste; enact and enforce regulations for environmentally sound management related to safe storage and movements; consider taking action towards the prohibition of those movements that are unsafe and insecure; ensure the strict control and management of hazardous wastes and radioactive waste, in accordance with relevant international and regional obligations and eliminate the exportation of such wastes to countries that, individually or through international agreements, prohibit their importation;

The Social Summit
Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development
Chapter III : Expansion of Productive Employment and Reduction of Unemployment
Basis for action and objectives

Para 50 (j)


The Social Summit
Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development
Chapter II : Eradication of Poverty
Basis for action and objectives
B. Improved access to productive resources and infrastructure

Para 31 (a)


Habitat II Conference
I - Preamble

Chapter 9


Habitat II Conference
IV Global Plan of Action
B. Adequate Shelter for All
3. Shelter delivery systems

Para 84

Para 85 (g)

Para 88

Para 90 (h)

Para 92 (b)

Para 78(d) Develop regularization programmes and formulate and implement such programmes and projects in consultation with the concerned population and organized groups, ensuring the full and equal participation of women and taking into account the needs differentiated by gender, age, disability and vulnerability;

[Actions: Para 90. To respond effectively to the requirements for appropriate planning, design, construction, maintenance and rehabilitation of shelter, infrastructure and other facilities, Governments at the appropriate levels should:

(b) Encourage public participation in assessing real user needs, especially gender needs, as an integrated action of the planning and design process; ]


Habitat II Conference
IV Global Plan of Action

C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world

2. Sustainable land use

Actions: Chapter 113
(l) Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable human settlements through the development and support of strategies and mechanisms that encourage open and inclusive dialogue among all interested parties, with special attention to the needs and priorities of women, minorities, children, youth, people with disabilities, older persons and persons living in poverty and exclusion;

Habitat II Conference
IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
5. Environmentally sustainable, healthy and liveable human settlements

Para 137 (f)

Para 139 (b)

Para 141 (k) Take into consideration the needs of women in making technological choices in respect of the level of and access to basic services;


Habitat II Conference
IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world

6. Sustainable energy use


[Habitat II Conference]
IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
7. Sustainable transport and communication systems

Chapter 147


Habitat II Conference
IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
9. Improving urban economies

Chapter 161 (b)


Habitat II Conference
IV Global Plan of Action
C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world

Chapter 101

Chapter 108


Habitat II Conference
IV Global Plan of Action
D. Capacity-building and institutional development
5. Metropolitan planning and management

Chapter 186 f, h

Chapter 186(b) Incorporate a gender perspective in policy, planning and management strategies;


Habitat II Conference
IV Global Plan of Action
F. Implementation and follow-up of the Habitat Agenda
5. Performance evaluation, indicators and best practices

Para 241

239. It is essential to evaluate the impact of policies, strategies and actions on the provision of adequate shelter and the achievement of sustainable human settlements development. The results of these evaluations will be considered by the relevant United Nations organs and bodies, including the Commission on Human Settlements. The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), together with other relevant organizations, will be responsible for establishing an appropriate process for analysing and monitoring major trends in urbanization and the impact of urban policies. In particular, age and gender-disaggregated information on the impact of urbanization on vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including children, should be collected, taking into account other relevant work in this field.


Habitat II Conference
III Commitments
A. Adequate shelter for all

Chapter 40 (f)

Chapter 40 (b) Providing legal security of tenure and equal access to land to all people, including women and those living in poverty; and undertaking legislative and administrative reforms to give women full and equal access to economic resources, including the right to inheritance and to ownership of land and other property, credit, natural resources and appropriate technologies;

Chapter 40 (c) Promoting access for all people to safe drinking water, sanitation and other basic services, facilities and amenities, especially for people living in poverty, women and those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;

Chapter 40 (l) Promoting shelter and supporting basic services and facilities for education and health for the homeless, displaced persons, indigenous people, women and children who are survivors of family violence, persons with disabilities, older persons, victims of natural and man-made disasters and people belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including temporary shelter and basic services for refugees;


Habitat II Conference
III. Commitments
B. Sustainable human settlements

Chapter 43 (j), (n), (o)


Chapter 43 (a)

Promoting, as appropriate, socially integrated and accessible human settlements, including appropriate facilities for health and education, combating segregation and discriminatory and other exclusionary policies and practices, and recognizing and respecting the rights of all, especially of women, children, persons with disabilities, people living in poverty and those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;

Chapter 43 (w)

Developing and evaluating policies and programmes to reduce the undesired adverse effects and improve the positive impact of structural adjustment and economic transition on sustainable human settlements development, especially on those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, and women, inter alia, through reviewing the impact of structural adjustment on social development by means of gender-sensitive social impact assessments and other relevant methods;


United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
Annex III. Regional Implementation Annex for Latin America and the Carribean
Article 4. Content of national action programmes

Point i


United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
Annex I. Regional Implementation Annex for Africa

Article 8. Content of national action programmes, Chapter 3.b (iii)

Article 11. Content and preparation of subregional action programmes, (b)

Article 13. Content of the regional action programme, (d)


United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
Paris, 17 June 1994

Article 10. National action programmes, Chapter 4

Article 19. Capacity building, education and public awareness, Chapter 1(f),%20education%20and%20public%20awareness




Commission on Sustainable Development:

CSD 1994
Chapter I
5. Changing consumption and production patterns

Para 47

Para 52


CSD 1995
4. Changing production and consumption patterns

Para 35


CSD 1996
Report on the Fourth Session
Decision 4/10. Transfer of environmentally sound technologies, cooperation and capacity-building

Decision 4/13. Changing production and consumption patterns*

Para 1. point (l, r, )

Para 2 (b)

Para 3 (d)

Decision 4/15. Protection of the atmosphere and protection of the oceans and all kinds of seas*
B. Protection of the atmosphere

Para 8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 19

E. Energy resources

Para 22-24

Chapter II

Para 13, 14, 17, 19, 36

Note the following documents:

E/CN.17/1996/20 7 Sustainable development of coastal areas, tourism, energy resources, air transport, maritime transport, telecommunications, and management of natural and environmental disasters in small island developing States: report of the Secretary-General
E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.2 7 Sustainable development of energy resources in small island developing States: report of the Secretary- General

CSD 1997
Note the following report:

E/CN.17/1997/7 4 Report of the Secretary-General on an and Corr.1 inventory of ongoing energy-related programmes and activities of entities within the United Nations system, on coordination of such activities, and on arrangements needed to foster the linkage between energy and sustainable development within the system


CSD 1997
Inventory of ongoing energy-related programmes and activities of entities within the United Nations system, on coordination of such activities and on arrangements needed to foster the linkage between energy and sustainable development within the system
Report of the Secretary-General

37. Women have an essential role to play in achieving sustainable energy programmes, with an emphasis on demand-side management and increased use of renewable energy sources. To enable women to participate more easily in energy programmes and projects, it is crucial that women's needs and involvement in both urban and rural areas be given due consideration in the planning of energy services. In urban areas, women's energy needs for domestic as well as economically productive activities need to be given due consideration.7/

UN Organization:

INSTRAW Energy-Related Programmes and Activities
I. Policies and mandates of the entity
INSTRAW pays particular attention to research, training and capacity- building at national and global levels to ensure the involvement of women in environmentally sustainable energy programmes and projects.
INSTRAW has a special role in the area of non-technological factors affecting the diffusion process of new and renewable sources of energy. Women's issues are central to the economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects of the diffusion process.
INSTRAW provides an important service by collecting information on non-technical aspects of the adoption of new and renewable sources of energy, analyzing it and making it available to international aid agencies as well as governments and NGOs.
In this regard, INSTRAW also undertakes research and training programmes.
II. Overview of programmes and activities
A. Energy development
B. Energy supply
C. Energy use
In the area of women and energy use and development, INSTRAW conducts catalytic research and training activities in close collaboration and co- ordination with agencies within and outside the UN system. The Institute collects, analyses and disseminates information and documentation concerning women and energy; helps identify areas where research and training activities can make a critical difference in the field of women and energy; and promotes, through TCDC, the integration of issues relevant to women into energy policies, programmes and projects, primarily through the conduct of participatory training seminars on "Women and New and Renewable Sources of Energy" at national, regional and international levels in cooperation with the UN organizations and national counterparts.
Based on seven years of research (INSTRAW) on women and energy, and on insights gained from the training experiences at ILO-Turin Center, INSTRAW has developed an innovative training package on "Women and New and Renewable Sources of Energy" to promote the integration of women's needs and their participation into the various phases of programmes and projects related to new and renewable sources of energy. The package is aimed at different target groups, including planners, senior officials, engineers, energy programme managers, representatives of NGOs and women's organizations and community workers.

Funding and Operation:
In cooperation with national counterparts, INSTRAW has adopted participatory and self-reliant techniques in applying the innovative training package. Three national training seminars (Dominican Republic, Egypt and Tanzania), one sub-regional workshop for the Mediterranean region (former Yugoslavia-Slovenia) and Arabic-speaking African countries (Libya) and one regional training seminar for Africa (Ethiopia, ECA headquarters) were conducted between 1989 to 1991.


CSD 1997
Critical issues and policies for sustainable development: energy, transport and water
Report of the High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development for the 1997 review of the Rio commitments
A. Making use of democracy
23. Sustainable development requires that greater use be made of the skills and knowledge possessed by women; the empowerment and mobilization of women must be promoted as a requisite for positive change. Reducing poverty means dealing with women's issues as a priority, including the implementation of the recommendations of the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 4-15 September 1995). Those recommendations should be reviewed and realistic targets established.


CSD 1998
Decision 6/1. Strategic approaches to freshwater management

19 (b)

D 44

F 69

3. Industry and Sustainable Development

Para 27, 29

point 46


CSD 1999
Draft resolution II

Preparations for the ninth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development on the issue of energy

Chapter VIII Initiation of preparations for the ninth session of the Commission on issues related to the sectoral theme: energy

Priorities for future work

5. The Commission on Sustainable Development reaffirms that poverty eradication and changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns remain the overriding issues of the Commissions's work programme. These two issues are to be integrated, as appropriate, into the future themes of the work programme, in particular highlighting the linkages with agriculture, financial resources, trade and investment in 2000, and energy and transport in 2001. In this regard, consideration should be given to developments in other relevant international organizations and intergovernmental bodies. The two overriding issues should also be given due regard at the comprehensive review at the Commission's tenth session in 2002 in preparation for the 10-year review of progress made since UNCED.


CSD 2000
Decision on Agriculture adopted

Chapter 11

Chapter 34

41. Relevant organizations and bodies are encouraged to make further efforts, with special attention to the gender perspective, in developing methodologies and improving coordination for data collection, indicators analysis, monitoring and evaluation of public and private efforts to support sustainable agriculture and rural development.

45. Effective implementation of the SARD [sustainable agriculture and rural development]

objectives requires participation of a wide range of stakeholders. Empowerment, participation and partnerships are critical to success in achieving SARD, in particular involvement of women, bearing in mind their important role in SARD. Governments and relevant international organizations are therefore urged, as appropriate, to further develop innovative institutional mechanisms to ensure effective stakeholder participation in decision-making related to SARD.