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CSD NGO Steering Committee

 

CSD NGO Women's Caucus

Resources: Finance & Trade

 

Reports, Books, Articles

This study focuses on such topics as trade and finance, technological change, agriculture, industry, services, and emerging trends in the international economy as related to women.
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0195063155/qid=932567533/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442

WOMEN IN THE WORLD ECONOMY: AN INSTRAW STUDY
prepared by Susan Joekes
Oxford University Press 1987 161pp ISBN 0 19 506315 5 £8.95 paperback
GENDER, MACROECONOMICS AND GLOBALIZATION
The Poverty Research Programme in UNDP's Social Development and Poverty Elimination Division has been conducting and International Working Group (IWG) on Engendering Macroeconomics and International Economics. After an international workshop in March 1999, the programme is now working with the IWG on a Policy Brief which will supplement articles to be published in a special issue of World Development in 2000. Further information from Nilufer.Cagatay@undp.org
GENDER AND CORRUPTION
Anand Swamy, Steve Knack, Young Lee, and Omar Azfar, IRIS Center, University of Maryland
"This paper is ground-breaking economic research. Four of my (male) colleagues at the IRIS Center instigated the work, developed it and did very rigorous economic analysis, and they have produced the paper. The findings are both exciting and imply some strong policy prescriptions." (Betty Wilkinson, IRIS Center)
Please feel most free to send requests for the paper, comments or questions to Dr. Omar Azfar, who can be reached by email at omar@iris.econ.umd.edu at the IRIS Center.
MONEY CAN'T BUY ME LOVE? RE-EVALUATING GENDER, CREDIT AND EMPOWERMENT IN RURAL BANGLADESH
Naila Kabeer
IDS Discussion Paper 363 1998 92pp ISBN 1 85864 216 7 £9.00
This paper tracks down possible reasons for why some evaluations reiterate the finding that loans to women help them to improve their position within their households as well as in the broader community, others claim that women not only have not benefitted, but they may have also been left worse off. . It finds that they relate only partly to conflicting empirical findings. More significant sources of conflict relate to differences in the methodologies used, in the questions asked and, above all, in the models of power which underpin the various evaluations. What appears to be common to all the evaluations, both positive and negative, is that they utilise an externally derived notion of empowerment rather than one which draws on the analysis of of the women loanees themselves and their own evaluations of what access to loans has meant. Consequently, the second half of the paper reports on an evaluation of the Small Enterprise Development Project in rural Bangladesh conducted by the author in early 1997 in which the impact of credit on the lives of loanees was assessed from the standpoint of mainly female, but also some male, loanees themselves. A comparison of the ‘outsider’ and ‘insider’ perspectives on the impact of credit thrown up by these different evaluations is used in the concluding section of the paper to make some general points about the conceptualisation,evaluation and promotion of women’s empowerment in the context of credit programmes.
This paper can be obtained from the following address:
IDS Publications Office, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, UK.
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 678269 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 E.mail: ids.books@sussex.ac.uk
POWER TO CHOOSE : BANGLADESHI WOMEN AND LABOR MARKET DECISIONS IN LONDON AND DHAKA
Naila Kabeer
The author examines the lives of Bangladeshi garment workers to shed light on the question of what constitutes "fair" competition in international trade. While Bangladesh is generally considered a poor, conservative Muslim country, with a long tradition of female seclusion, women here have entered factories to take their place as a prominent, first generation, industrial labor force. On the other hand, in Britain's modern and secular society with its long tradition of female industrial employment, Bangladeshi women are largely concentrated in home-based piece work for the garment industry. This book draws on testimonies of both groups concerning their experiences at work and the impact these have on their lives generally to explain such paradoxes. Kabeer argues that any attempt to devise acceptable labor standards at the international level which takes no account of the forces of inclusion and exclusion within local labor markets is likely to represent the interests of powerful losers in international trade at the expense of weak winners. (To be published in November 1999)
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1859848044/qid=932567301/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442

This study was commissioned by the Social Development Division of the Department for International Development (DFID), UK, to assess the current state of knowledge about gender inequality and trade, to inform the development of policy in this area and to identify areas for future, policy relevant research. It is largely based on existing literature and analysis of secondary data, as well as on information from selected stakeholder organisations, including international agencies and non-governmental organisations. A team of gender specialists and economists prepared the report, the draft version of which formed the basis of discussion for a workshop convened at DFID in October 1997. A summary of discussions and list of participants are appended to the report. Concern with the coherence of development co-operation and broader economic co-operation policies are growing. Contributing to this debate, the report highlights areas where existing databases need to be strengthened in respect of gender issues. Given that this is a relatively new area of inquiry, there is also a need to develop the methodological framework to enable more rigorous analysis. For these reasons, only provisional conclusions can be drawn at this stage requiring further empirical investigation and verification
This study can obtained from the follwing address:
IDS Publications Office, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, UK.
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 678269 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 E.mail: ids.books@sussex.ac.uk

GLOBAL TRADE EXPANSION AND LIBERALISAITON: GENDER ISSUES AND IMPACTS
Marzia Fontana, Susan Joekes and Rachel Masika
BRIDGE Report 42 1998 81pp ISBN 1 85864 236 1 £10.00

This paper examines gender issues in relation to financial liberalisation and financial sector reform. It aims to demonstrate that the processes of financial liberalisation and financial sector reform are not gender-neutral and that, therefore, gender analysis has a place in the design and implementation of financial sector restructuring. Failure to take gender issues into account may lead to inefficient and inequitable outcomes in terms of women's access to financial markets and through them financial services (credit and savings principally). This analysis is intended to inform policy dialogue within bilateral agencies, principally between gender/women in development desks and sections responsible for economic reform and programme aid. Beyond this the paper is a background resource to feed into the design of more gender-aware adjustment programmes.
This study can obtained from the follwing address:
IDS Publications Office, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, UK.
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 678269 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 E.mail: ids.books@sussex.ac.uk

GENDER ISSUES IN FINANCIAL LIBERALISATION AND FINANCIAL SECTOR REFORM
Sally Baden
BRIDGE Report 39 1996 51pp ISBN 1 85864 174 8 £10.00

This report reviews the impact on women’s work of recession and structural adjustment policies in developing countries, with a focus on Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980’s. An overview of the existing literature is given, and the problems in analysing the impact of recession and adjustment on women’s employment are discussed. Formal sector employment, male-female wage differentials, urban informal sector employment, agricultural employment, unemployment and underemployment, and compensatory programmes are all examined.
This study can obtained from the follwing address:
IDS Publications Office, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, UK.
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 678269 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 E.mail: ids.books@sussex.ac.uk

THE IMPACT OF RECESSION AND STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT ON WOMEN'S WORK IN SELECTED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Sally Baden
BRIDGE Report 15 1993 40pp ISBN 1 85864 150 0 £6.

IDS Publications Office, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, UK.
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 678269 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 E.mail: ids.books@sussex.ac.uk

NECESSARY, SUFFICIENT OR IRRELEVANT? WOMEN, WAGES AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD POWER RELATIONS IN URBAN BANGLADESH
Naila Kabeer
IDS Working Paper 25 1995 38pp ISBN 1 85864 078 4 £6.00
This paper examines whether women's access to income earning opportunities has implications for their position in intra-household relationships.
This study can obtained from the follwing address:
GENDER EQUAL
Posted: 05-04-99
MAF Public Information Paper
http://www.maf.govt.nz/MAFnet/publications/gendreql/httoc.htm
This study looks at the diversity of rural and farm women's lives and provides some insights into the barriers to their participation in the mainstream economy. It suggests how these might be overcome so that rural women can act to improve their own position and how policy-makers can take account of the life experiences and requirements of all rural people (women and men).
OFFICE OF WOMEN'S BUSINESS OWNERSHIP (OWBO)
OWBO is helping women start and build successful businesses and provide programs to help women put together successful loan packages or break into the federal procurement and export markets. OWBO has loan guarantee programs to help those who are not able to get lending through conventional channels finance their businesses and offer training, advice and counseling anytime, anywhere via the Internet. This site features their services and programs.
http://www.sba.gov/womeninbusiness/
BEYOND CREDIT: A SUBSECTOR APPROACH TO PROMOTING WOMEN'S ENTERPRISES
Martha Chen (Ed.)
Beyond Credit introduces participatory subsector analysis as an effective approach to promoting women's enterprises, identifying new and growth sectors of economic activity to help ensure that poor women are appropriately trained. Includes case studies from Bangladesh, India, Nigeria, Ghana, Chile, the Philippines and Canada.
1996. paper; 151 pp. ISBN 0-969662-0-2 US$19.95
AN END TO DEBT: OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR CREDIT PROJECTS
Ellen Pruyne (Ed.)
Operational Guidelines for Credit Projects Ellen Pruyne (Ed.) This book, based on projects of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and its partner organizations, addresses each stage of the project cycle in establishing or managing a credit programme for women, relevant issues and decisions to be made at each stage, and policies to guide those decisions.
1993. 111 pages. ISBN 0-912917-44-X WE037Z US$15.95
Also available in Spanish and French.
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/091291744X/qid=932567715/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442
FINANCING WOMEN'S ENTERPRISES: BEYOND BARRIERS AND BIAS
Thea Hilhorst and Harry Oppenoorth
Integrating numerous experiences of financial programmes with insights from gender studies and women and development programmes, Financing Women's Enterprises examines the need of poor, self-employed women for financial services, and analyses the ways this demand is presently met. It suggests methods to ensure access to adequate financing and financial services.
1992. paper; 96 pp. ISBN 90-6832-705-4
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/9068327054/qid%3D932567781/002-1060514-8742442
VILLAGE BANKING: THE STATE OF THE PRACTICE
From its roots in Central and South America in the 1980s, village banking is now creating autonomous institutions in more than 28 countries, enabling very poor communities, especially women, to accumulate and manage assets. This book analyses the experience of 68 programmes, their organisational structures, their strategies for attaining self-sufficiency, and their impact. 1996. paper; 100 pp. ISBN 0-912-917-39-3 US$12.95
GENDER AND COMMAND OVER PROPERTY: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SOUTH ASIA
Bina Agarwal
This monograph focuses on the links between gender inequities and command over property in rural South Asia where a complex range of factors underlie the persistent gap between women's legal rights and their actual ownership of land. It also discusses the necessity of collective action to overcome these obstacles, and aspects needing a specific focus for policy and action. 1994. 51 pages. ISBN 81-85107-31-9 WE319Z US$8.00
SPEAKING OUT: WOMEN'S ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT IN SOUTH ASIA
Marilyn Carr, Martha Chen and Renana Jhabvala (Eds.)
Drawing together the experiences of seven South Asian NGOs in organizing rural and urban poor women for economic empowerment, Speaking Out throws new light on how changes are occurring at the grassroots level, and analyses and defines economic empowerment from the perspective of women themselves. Case studies.
1996. 238 pages. ISBN 1-85339-382-7 WE264Z US$18.95
THE STRATEGIC SILENCE: GENDER AND ECONOMIC POLICY
Isabel Bakker
This book makes a unique contribution to the literature on restructuring and adjustment. It applies feminist scholarship to macroeconomics, discusses current macroeconomic methods and policies, and proposes elements of a more gender-aware economics. It also offers reflections on state, economy, and household relations based on research and case studies from Canada, Indonesia, Turkey, Mexico, Iran, and Chile.
1995. 170 pages. ISBN 1-85649-262-1 WE232Z US$17.50
WOMAN'S ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Ester Boserup
Boserup analyses how women have been affected by the breakdown in village-based production and by male migration to cities, and proposes new forms of education for women to ensure their participation in the modern labour force. This new edition of her classic work is superb background for those concerned with women's role in the development process.1989. 288 pages. ISBN 1-853-83-0402 WE111Z US$19.90
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1853830402/qid=932568051/sr=1-2/002-1060514-8742442
WOMEN, MEN AND ECONOMICS. THE GENDER-DIFFERENTIATED IMPACT OF MACROECONOMICS
Lorraine Corner
This monograph is especially concerned with the gender-differentiated consequences of the sometimes unrecognized impact of macroeconomic policy on individual women and men in developing countries. Although economics may not be accountable for all of the policies developed and implemented in the pursuit of macroeconomic goals, the lack of gender-awareness which characterises the economics profession and its activities is partly a consequence of certain defects and deficiencies in its methodological apparatus. Despite some important advances in a number of areas of theory, the failure of economics to adequately incorporate gender into its models and concerns remains a fundamental weakness.
1997. 82 pages. ISBN 0-912917-47-4
WE382Z US$9.95
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0912917474/qid=932568088/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442
WORKING TOWARDS A MORE GENDER-EQUITABLE MACRO-ECONOMIC AGENDA
UNRISD
While the negative effects of structural adjustment policies on women's daily lives have been increasingly recognised, the link between gender relations and macro-economics has received far less attention. This highly useful report fills the gap by offering a simple overview of the conceptual basis, politics and direction for a feminist macro-economic agenda. Coming out of a workshop of the same name held in Bangladesh in 1996, the report also includes the findings presented by five national research teams: Bangladesh, Jamaica, Morocco, Uganda and Viet Nam. Providing at once a theoretical framework and examples of practical implementation, it is essential reading for development specialists and policy makers. List of references.
1997. 59 pages. ISSN 1020-1092.
WE373Z US$8.00
GENDER AND JOBS: SEX SEGREGATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN THE WORLD
Richard Anker
The segregation of men and women into different occupations is one of the most important and enduring aspects of labour markets around the world. Women continue to have lower paying and lower status jobs and female-dominated occupations tend to replicate the activities women perform at home. Based on unusually detailed ILO data and covering a large number of countries as well as a broad range (17 from Europe, 5 from the Americas, 6 from the Middle East and North Africa, 6 from Asia, 3 from the Pacific and 4 from Africa), this book provides a comprehensive analysis of the current situation. It will be invaluable to policy-makers, researchers and anyone interested in the situation of women.
1998. 444 pages. ISBN 92-2-109524-X WE407 US$40.0
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/922109524X/qid=932568121/sr=1-3/002-1060514-8742442
HOMEWORKERS IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE : INVISIBLE NO MORE
Eileen Boris and Elisabeth Prügl (Eds.)
This book brings together the voices of policy experts, activists, feminist scholars and homeworkers themselves to takes us inside the world of this often invisible and marginalised group. It also shows how homeworkers have emerged from the shadows in recent years to take part in a global struggle to gain recognition, better wages and social security.
1996. 327 pages. ISBN 0-415-91007-2 WE340Z US$19.99
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0415910072/qid=932568198/sr=1-6/002-1060514-8742442
NO SWEAT: FASHION, FREE TRADE AND THE RIGHTS OF GARMENT WORKERS
Andrew Ross (Ed.)
No Sweat includes contributions from workers, activists, labour lawyers, trade unionists, industry executives, journalists and academics who are challenging the inequities of the new global economy. It puts the issue of labour squarely alongside the issue of style by looking, for example, at the connections between child labour in Bangladesh and runway couture in Milan, Paris and New York. Photographs; list of contacts.
1997. 314 pages. ISBN 1-85984-172-4 WE363Z US$17.95
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1859841724/qid=932568233/sr=1-10/002-1060514-8742442
WOMEN, EMPLOYMENT AND EXCLUSION
Caroline Sweetman (Ed.)
This collection examines the main concerns about the employment of women worldwide. It explores the increase in women's participation in the paid work-force, and the implications of the deregulation of markets and `flexible' working conditions. It notes that women are still concentrated in low-skilled jobs and over-represented in `informal' occupations which are the most precarious and worst paid. List of resources; bibliography.
1996. 64 pages. ISBN 0-85598-364-7 WE293Z US$12.95
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0855983647/qid=932568402/sr=1-48/002-1060514-8742442
WORK INTENSITY, GENDER AND WELL-BEING
Cecile Jackson and Richard Palmer-Jones
Employment is central to current understandings of poverty and well-being, as well as to prescriptions for poverty reduction. Labour-intensive growth and greater labour force participation are major policy recommendations in the New Poverty Agenda of the 90s. They are also prominent elements in the discourse on women and development. This paper looks at work intensity as an important but neglected quality of labour and critically reviews the way work intensity is dealt with. The authors argue that work intensity has significant gendered effects on well-being and point to several policies espoused by the development community--and often assumed to reduce poverty--that actually worsen the conditions of the poor.
Bibliography; summary in French and Spanish.
1998. 38 pages. ISSN 1012-6511. WE427 US$5.00
DOING A FEASIBILITY STUDY : TRAINING ACTIVITIES FOR STARTING OR REVIEWING A SMALL BUSINESS
Suzanne Kindervatter (Ed.)
This training manual, for women who want to start or expand a business, explores a range of enterprise options and assists in developing a business plan and budget. Written at a very basic level, it explains how to research the viability of an enterprise, investigate market demands, and make cost and income projections.
1987. 170 pages. ISBN 0-912917-07-5 WE004Z US$17.00
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0912917075/qid=932568894/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442
EXPORT MARKETING FOR A SMALL HANDICRAFT BUSINESS
Edward Millard
Ideal for the small-scale handicraft producer, this manual discusses: reaching and maintaining contact with customers; designing and producing for overseas markets; packaging; quality control; and the formalities and documentation of exporting.
1992. 184 pages. ISBN 1-85339-106-9 WE039BZ US$19.50
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1853393525/qid=932568937/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442
FAIDIKA! BUSINESS TRAINING FOR WOMEN'S GROUPS: THE TOTOTO WAY
Kevin Kane
Faidika, a Swahili word meaning "profit," is a business skills training manual based on practical experience in Kenya. Embodying a participatory and nonformal education approach, the 14 easy-to-follow lessons deal with basic business topics ranging from start up to profit and loss, cash control, bookkeeping and financial statements, to feasibility analysis, business planning, and marketing.
1993. 66 pages. ISBN 0-914262-13 WE177Z US$20.00
GETTING DOWN TO BUSINESS: A TRAINING MANUAL FOR BUSINESSWOMEN
Uschi Kraus-Harper and Malcolm Harper
This book is an invaluable resource for designing, managing or conducting business training for women, with detailed guidelines for a 29-session course.
1992. 166 pages. ISBN 1-85339-113-1 WE041Z US$23.00
MARKETING STRATEGY: TRAINING ACTIVITIES FOR ENTREPRENEURS
Suzanne Kindervatter with Maggie Range
This handbook utilizes an innovative board game--"Marketing Mix"--which is especially effective with groups of varying literacy skills. Designed for women with existing businesses, the game introduces key aspects of marketing: product, distribution, promotion and price. After playing, participants identify concrete ways to increase sales and improve practices.
1986. 96 pages; includes game board.
ISBN 0-912917-08-3 WE005Z US$15.50
A QUESTION OF ACCESS : TRAINING WORKSHOPS ON PLANNING CREDIT PROJECTS THAT TAKE WOMEN INTO ACCOUNT
This participatory training manual from UNIFEM is designed to raise awareness about gender issues in credit projects. Structured for a 5-7 day workshop, the manual follows the components of the project cycle: Project Identification, Formulation, Implementation, Monitoring, and Transition. Case studies from Asia, Latin America, and Africa; handouts.
1995. 180 pages. ISBN 0-912917-36-9 WE147Z US$15.95
GLOBAL TRADING PRACTICES AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN SOUTH ASIA. A GENDER PERSPECTIVE
Aasha Kapur Mehta and Camilla Otto
Developed from a regional seminar on women and trade (New Delhi, 1995) that involved 40 participants from South Asia, this book from UNIFEM includes background papers on gender biases in macroeconomics and trade liberalisation and country papers that present an overview of national economic trends and their impact on women. Case studies.
1996. 283 pages. ISBN 0-912917-47-4 WE310Z US$9.95
WOMEN AND THE NEW TRADE AGENDA
Susan Joekes and Ann Weston
This UNIFEM title reviews recent trends and issues in world trade, analyses lessons learned from export-oriented strategies in different countries and regions, and considers the potential of trade-related employment for women. It includes recommendations for advocacy work to ensure that women's economic prospects are protected by regional and global trade agreements.
1995. 100 pages. ISBN 0-912917-34-2 WE159Z US$7.95
ENGENDERING INTERNATIONAL TRADE: Concepts, Policy, and Action
Lourdes Benerķa and Amy Lind
Cornell University presented by The Gender, Science and Development Programme and the United Nations Development Fund for Women GSD Working Paper Series No. 5, July 1995
http://www.ifias.ca/GSD/Beneria.Contents.html
GENDER FRONT & CENTRE: AN APEC PRIMER
Heather Gibb, published by The North-South Institute, The Canadian International Development Agency and UNIFEM, 1997.
This "primer", Gender Front and Centre, has been developed as a contribution to the second meeting of the Women Leaders' Network (WLN) in APEC Economies, held in Hull, Canada, September 13-16, 1997. The WLN is an informal network of women in business, government, academe, and civil society from the countries that comprise APEC. Its objective is to promote integration of gender perspectives in APEC's work.
The primer examines APEC's structures and work program through a gendered lens, to see how gender differences are addressed in the organization's policy and programs. Thus, it will be of interest to those seeking information on what APEC is, how it functions, and how to engage with APEC. It also sets out, as "key considerations," suggestions on how the WLN and others might engage with APEC to secure gender equality objectives.
http://www.nsi-ins.ca/pubs/apec/index.html
GENDER IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBALIZATION (with specific reference to the Asian financial crisis.
Marilyn Carr, Senior Economic Advisor, UNIFEM, 1998.
Roundtable on the specific implications of the effects of the Asian Financial Crisis on women in Asia. This event took place during the International Women's Week, sponsored by the Women in Development and Gender Equity Division, Policy Branch, CIDA
Ottawa, March 10th 1998
http://www.unifem.undp.org/pap_cida.htm
GLOBAL TRADING PRACTICES AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN SOUTH ASIA: REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON WOMEN AND TRADE
Aasha Kapur Mehta and Camilla Otto, 1996, US$9.95.
The first in a series of regional publications from UNIFEM on the impact of trade liberalisation on women, this publication includes recommendations from a regional seminar on women and trade (New Delhi, 1995). The seminar - organized in response to growing concerns from the women's movement in South Asia about the impact of trade liberalisation on women in the region, involved 40 participants from India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Maldives, Nepal and Bhutan. The book also includes background papers on gender biases in macroeconomics and trade liberalisation; case studies that explore the impact of trade liberalisation on specific industrial sectors; and country papers that present an overview of national economic trends and their impact on women.
AN END TO DEBT: INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR CREDIT PROJECTS.
Edited by Ellen Pruyne, 1993
This book, most useful to those directly involved in establishing or managing a credit programme for women, addresses each stage of the project cycle, highlights relevant issues and decisions to be made at each stage, and recommends policies to guide those decisions. It is based on the experience of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and its partner organizations over the past 15 years in the effective implementation of the projects to ensure access to affordable credit for poor women.
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/generic-quicksearch-query/002-1060514-8742442
FINANCING WOMEN'S ENTERPRISES: BEYOND BARRIERS AND BIAS
By Thea Hilhorst and Harry Oppernoorth, 1992, US$18.95.
Integrating numerous experiences of financial programmes with insights from gender studies and women and development programmes, Financing Women's Enterprises examines the need of poor, self-employed women for financial services, analyses the ways this demand is presently met, and suggests methods to ensure access to adequate financing and financial services
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/9068327054/qid%3D932569464/002-1060514-8742442
A QUESTION OF ACCESS: TRAINING WORKSHOPS ON PLANNING CREDIT PROJECTS THAT TAKE WOMEN INTO ACCOUNT
By UNIFEM, 1995, US$15.95.
A Question of Access is a participatory training manual designed to raise awareness about gender issues in credit projects. Structured for workshops of 5-7 days, the manual is divided into four modules following the components of the project cycle: Project Identification, Formulation, Implementation, Monitoring, and Transition. The manual was developed with advice from Algeria, Trinidad/Tobago, Ethiopia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Philippines and Cameroon. Includes: case studies; handouts; overheads.
SPEAKING OUT: WOMEN'S ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT IN SOUTH ASIA
Edited by Marilyn Carr, Martha Chen and Rehana Jhabvala, 1996,
US$18.95.
This volume draws together the experiences of seven South Asian NGOs in organizing rural and urban poor women for economic empowerment. Going beyond the normal descriptive accounts of the work of these NGOs, it throws new light on how changes are occurring at the grassroots level and analyzes and defines economic empowerment from the perspective of women themselves. Through case studies, the book demonstrates how women are gaining increased access to and control over economic resources and how this, in turn, has led to far-reaching socio-cultural and political changes at the individual, family, community and wider economy levels. It also shows how women are now building and taking control of their own organizations which increasingly are becoming more autonomous and financially self-reliant. This book will be of relevance to students of development and women's studies, development planners and practitioners, women's organizations and those with an interest in South Asia.
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1853393827/qid=932569501/sr=1-3/002-1060514-8742442
VILLAGE BANKING: THE STATE OF THE PRACTICE
Jointly published by UNIFEM and SEEP, 1995, US$12.95.
Pioneered by FINCA in the 1980s, village banking is a financial services model that enables poor communities to establish their own credit and saving associations, or, village banks. From its origins in Central America, the model has been replicated and adapted in over 25 countries around the world. It teaches over 90,000 clients, 95% of whom are women. This working paper, written by Candace Nelson, Barbara MkNelly, Kathleen Stack and Lawrence Yanovitch, documents village banking experience globally by examining its methodological adaptations, gender issues, organizational development, self-sufficiency and impact.
WOMEN AND THE NEW TRADE AGENDA
By Susan Joekes and Ann Weston, 1995, US$7.95.
Women and the New Trade Agenda discusses the prospects and pitfalls of trade liberalization for women. It provides a brief overview of recent trends and issues in world trade and in policy making. It then examines gender-specific outcomes of trade, analyses the lessons learned from export-oriented strategies in the past in different countries and regions, and considers the potential gains and limitations for women of trade-related employment. The book concludes with recommendations for advocacy work targeted at ensuring that women's economic prospects are protected and enhanced by regional and global trade agreements.
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0912917342/qid=932569654/sr=1-3/002-1060514-8742442
WHO TAKES THE CREDIT? Gender, Power, and Control over Loan Use in Rural Credit Programmes in Bangladesh
Anne Marie Goetz and Rina Sen Gupta
IDS Working Paper 8 1994 34pp ISBN 1 85864 012 1 £6.00
can be obtained from: IDS Publications Office, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, UK.
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 678269 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 E.mail: ids.books@sussex.ac.uk
THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE EXPANSION ON WOMEN'S WORK
Susan Joekes
BRIDGE Report 16 1993 25pp ISBN 1 85864 151 9 £6.00
can be obtained from: IDS Publications Office, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, UK.
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 678269 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 E.mail: ids.books@sussex.ac.uk
WOMEN IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY: CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITY IN THE CURRENT ASIAN ECONOMIC CRISIS
http://www.unifem-eseasia.org/Resources/GlobalEconomy/TOC.html
This kit is a collaborative undertaking of the United Nations Development Fund for Women, UNIFEM, and the Canadian International Development Agency-Southeast Asia Gender Equity Program, CIDA-SEAGEP. It aims to encourage dialogue and action to better recognize the economic role of women, and therefore to more effectively include women as equal partners, decision makers and beneficiaries in shaping a better future for all in the global marketplace.
NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND THE FUTURE OF WOMEN'S WORK IN ASIA. Workshop Report
Cecilia Ng Choon Sim and Anne Munro Kua, editors, 1995:
13-16 September, 1994. Malaysia"; The United Nations University, Institute for New Technologies (UNU/INTECH); The Netherlands.
INDUSTRIAL POLICIES FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: NEW TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN'S WORK. Workshop report
Swasti Mitter, editor, 1996:
29-31 March, 1995. New Delhi"; The United Nations University, Institute for New Technologies (UNU/INTECH); The Netherlands.
BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN THE STATE AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS. FORMULATING INDUSTRIAL POLICIES AND WOMEN'S WORK FOR THE FUTURE. Workshop report
Swasti Mitter and Cecilia Ng Choon Sim, editors, 1996
26-28 March, 1996. Bangkok"; The United Nations University, Institute for New Technologies (UNU/INTECH); The Netherlands.

Requests for the above publications should be sent to:
UNU/INTECH
Kapoenstraat 23
6211 KV Maastricht
The Netherlands
FAX (043) 350 6399
http://www.unifem-eseasia.org/Projects/TechChange.html

IDS Seminar Series: GENDER, ECONOMICS AND POLICY: February 4th 1999
The Economy as a Gendered Structure: Evidence from Uganda
Barbara Evers, University of Manchester
http://www.ids.ac.uk/bridge/seminars.html#marzia
IDS Seminar Series: GENDER, ECONOMICS AND POLICY: 27th January 1999
Women at Work and at Home: Modelling the interactions
Marzia Fontana, IDS
The models she is developing can be used to examine not only the gender impact of trade liberalisation, but also of policy intervention and economic shocks.
Why is modelling useful to gender analysis? How can gender features be incorporated into models? Few models try to incorporate gender concerns, and gender studies often neglect models as a tool for analysis. There do exist some interesting attempts in this regard, as discussed in World Development, issue on Macroeconomics and Gender (1995, 23 11), which describes a useful typology of approaches and provides several examples. However, this area is still at early stages, and much potential remains for expanding the intersection between gender analysis and economic modelling.
What is a model and why are they useful? A model is a system of equations, which describe the functioning of the economy, the connections and nature of interactions between different actors and variables, under a set of clearly visible assumptions. Models are based on the assumption of actors rationally maximising an objective, although what the objective is may vary e.g. own or family welfare, income. Male and female objectives may differ. Models are useful in that they force us to describe reality in a way which is logically consistent and complete. They can be used as a laboratory for controlled experiments, so individual factors can be looked at in isolation.
How are models constructed? at employment in terms of hours worked, rather than numbers of actual people working, and assumes women work in both household and other sectors, within a time constraint.
WHERE ARE WE IN THE ECONOMICS OF GENDER? THE GENDER PAY GAP
Francine D. Blau
NBER Working Paper No. W5664
Issued in July 1996
Abstract - Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment in favored sectors. Drawing on joint work with Lawrence Kahn, I illustrate the impact of wage structure by presenting empirical results analyzing its effect on international differences in the gender gap and trends over time in the gender differential in the U.S. This paper may be subscribed from the following url: http://nberws.nber.org/papers/W5664
THE EFFECTS OF RISING FEMALE LABOR SUPPLY ON MALE WAGES
Chinhui Juhn, Dae Il Kim
NBER Working Paper No. W5236
Issued in August 1995
Abstract - This paper examines the extent to which rapid increases in female labor supply contributed to rising wage inequality and to declining real wages of less skilled males during the 1980s. We find that while the male wage declines are concentrated in the 1980s, female labor supply growth slowed in the 1980s relative to the 1970s. Women also increased the relative supply of skill in the economy in the 1980s. We find these findings to be inconsistent with a simple story in which supply shifts among women have played a major role. Instead, they further support the view that demand shifts, rather than supply shifts, have been the underlying cause of declining opportunities for less skilled males and rapid inequality growth in the 1980s. We also use state and SMSA-level data to estimate cross- substitution effects between men and women of different skill types. We find weak evidence that women may be substitutes for high school dropout men and that college educated women may have contributed to wage inequality growth by being better substitutes for high school dropout men than high school graduate men. We end with some suggestive evidence that unmeasured demand shifts which favored skilled female workers over less skilled male workers may be biasing our results towards finding substitution between these two groups. The paper may be subscribed from the following url: http://nberws.nber.org/papers/W5236

All the above IDS, NBER and BRIDGE documents can be obtained at the following address:
IDS Publications Office, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, UK.
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 678269 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 E.mail: ids.books@sussex.ac.uk

 

Unannotated Bibliography
Berger, Marguerite (1989), "Giving Women Credit: The Strengths and Limitations of Credit as a Tool for Alleviating Poverty" World Development, Volume 17, Number 7, pp. 1017-1032.
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0931816793/qid%3D932569899/002-1060514-8742442
Blayney, Robert (1979), "El Salvador Second Urban Project: Impact of Small Scale Enterprise (SSE) Credit Programm on Women Enterpreneurs." Report prepared for the World Bank, Office of the Advisor on Women in Development. Washington DC: The World Bank Mimeo
Blayney, Robert and Lycette, Margaret (1983), "Improving the Access of Women-headed Households to Solanda Housing: A feasible Down Payment Assistance Scheme." Report prepared for USAID/Ecuador. Washington DC: International Center for Research on Women.
Chen, Marta (1996), Beyond Credit: A Subsector Approach to Promoting Women's Enterprises. Aga Khan Foundation Canada.
DeLancey, Virginia (1981). "The Role of Credit Unions in Development for West African Women." Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the African Studies Association, Bloomington, Indiana, October 1981.
Due Jean M. and Summary, Rebecca (1979), "Constraints to Women and Development in Africa". Illinois Agricultural Economics Staff PAper no. 79 E-83. Urbana-Campaign: University of Illinois, Department of Agricultural Economics.
FAO (1984), Promotion of Women's Activities in Marketing and Credit. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
FAO (1985), Learning from Women: A Manual for Village Level Training to Promote Women's Activities in Marketing. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
Harper, Malcolm (1992), Their Own Idea: Lessons from Workers' Co-operatives. IT Publications.
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url :
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1853391395/qid=932570152/sr=1-11/002-1060514-8742442
Hilhorst, Thea and Harry Oppenoorth (1992), Financing Women's Enterprises. IT Publications and Royal Tropical Institute.
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url :
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/9068327054/qid%3D932570179/002-1060514-8742442
ILO (1980). Report of the National Workshop on Income Generation skills for Women in Sri Lanka. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
Jumani, U. (1989). Training for Women in the Informal Sector: The Experience of the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA), Ahmedabad, India in F. Fluitman (ed), Training for Work in the Informal Sector. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
Mintz, Sidney W. (1964), "The Employment of Capital by Market Women in Haiti", in Raymond Firth and B.S. Yamey (eds), Capital, Savings and Credit in Peseant Societies, Chicago: Aldine.
NCW-ILO (1988).Women's Self-Employment in Fiji: Findings of the 1987 Survey. Suva: National Council of Women/International Labour Organization.
Pruyne, Ellen (Ed.) (1993), An End to Debt: International Guidelines for Credit Projects. New York: UNIFEM (also in Spanish and French).
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url :
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/091291744X/qid=932570318/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442
SEEP-UNIFEM (1996), Village Banking: The State of the Practice. New York: UNIFEM.
UNIFEM (1992), A Question of Access: Training Workshops on Planning Credit Projects that take Women into Account. New York: UNIFEM
Chen, Marta (1996), Beyond Credit: A Subsector Approach to Promoting Women's Enterprises, Aga Khan Foundation Canada and the Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID).
CGAP, The Hidden Beast: delinquency in Microenterprise Credit Programs, , CGAP Briefs and Focus Notes 1-5, Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest, World Bank

This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/185649084X/qid=932570362/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442

Kalima Rose (1992), Where women are leaders: The SEWA movement in India, Vistaar Publications, New Delhi.
Katherine Stearns (1995),Assessing the Impacts of Microenterprise Interventions: A Framework for Analysis, Accion Discussion Paper no.5, 1991 , USAID AIMS Project.
Vyas, Jayashree (1992), "Banking with Poor Self-employed Women" in Savings and Credit: The NGO Factor, Bangalore: ActionAid (India).
Wignaraja, P. (1990), Women, Poverty and Access to Credit: Innovative Approaches. New Delhi: Sage Publications
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com from the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0803996241/qid=932570584/sr=1-6/002-1060514-8742442

 

Some of UNIFEM's Programs

  1. Advancement of Mongolian Women Project
  2. Description of a UNIFEM program on small business development, microcredit and loan provision and business training in Mongolia.
    http://www.unifem-eseasia.org/Projects/mongolia01.html

  3. Cottage Industry in North Korea
  4. Description of a UNIFEM program on the provision of factories, cooperatives and a Trading and Garment Centre to provide support services in North Korea.
    http://www.unifem-eseasia.org/Projects/CottInd.html

  5. Vietnamese Women in Fish Processing
  6. Description of a UNIFEM program involved in provising better and more effective and efficient services to improve fish processing in Vietnam
    http://www.unifem-eseasia.org/Projects/Haiphong.html

  7. Gender Sensitive Venture Capital
    The Gender Sensitive Venture Capital (GSVC) project started in 1993, to test a new financial instrument (commercial loan and equity financing, that is, venture capital) targetting small scale women entrepreneurs. The project promotes women's ownership of business and financial assets, and trains women in entrepreneurial skills
    http://www.unifem-eseasia.org/Projects/GSVC.html
  8.