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Resources: Sustainable Agriculture

Reports, Books, Articles

This paper reviews the impact of structural adjustment on sustainability of rural livelihoods. It unpacks the elements of adjustment and looks at the effects of each of these on the quantity, quality and sustainability of rural livelihoods. There is no systematic improvement or decline in rural livelihoods as a result of adjustment measures. Changes in the relative prices of tradables and nontradables provided incentives and had a positive impact on rural livelihoods in some countries but failed to create sustainable incentive structures in others. By concentrating almost exclusively on the issues of pricing, the reform policies ignored the other critical factors, in particular, the technological development needed to translate improved incentives into more sustainable and productive farming systems. To order this paper, contact the following address:
Publications Office
Institute of Development Studies
University of Sussex
Brighton BN1 9RE
UK
Tel: (01273) 678269 (Intl +44 1273)
Fax (01273) 621202/691647
E-mail: publications@ids.ac.uk

IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT ON SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOODS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Ismail I Ahmed with Michael Lipton
IDS Working Paper 62 1997 33pp ISBN 1 85864 210 8 6.

This book describes the ideological and political process that is agricultural development. It points towards more practical strategies for developing effective and equitable partnerships between indigenous knowledge systems through adaptive, people-centred, agricultural research and extension, moving from theory to policy and practice.
This book may be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1853392375/qid=932558485/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442

BEYOND FARMER FIRST: RURAL PEOPLE'S KNOWLEDGE, AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION PRACTICE
edited by Ian Scoones and John Thompson
Intermediate Technology 1994 301pp ISBN 1 85339 250 2 5.75 paperback

The UK Presidency of the EU must oversee progress on the Agenda 2000 proposals to reform the common agricultural policy (CAP). The proposed reforms are limited and will not include the substantial trade liberalisation called for by critics of the CAP. This must wait for the next round of WTO negotiations. As the reforms stand, their net impact will be unfavourable for developing countries, though not seriously so. Likely negative effects could be counteracted fairly easily. But development advocates will need to lobby hard for such measures. Without them, the Agenda 2000 reforms would be a backward step for development.
http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/publicat/briefs/brief11.html

CAP REFORMS: WILL DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BENEFIT?
IDS Policy Briefing 11 1998 0.00

Fresh fruit exported from Chile, and many other developing countries, has become commonplace in our supermarkets during the winter months. Employment in this branch of agribusiness is mainly seasonal and employs large numbers of women workers. This book provides an in-depth examination of the 'fruit explosion' in Chile and its effect on rural women. It explores the structure of the agro-export sector and the role of seasonal female employment. The authors ask how women combine this new type of work with their more traditional roles, and consider state politics to support seasonal workers. Both the local and global implications of women working in this sector of agribusiness are considered. The book ends by discussing the possible effects of supermarket codes of conduct on temporary, female workers in agribusiness. The book takes an interdisciplinary perspective and provides an important contribution to research on women and agribusiness.
This book may be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0312219989/qid%3D932558790/002-1060514-8742442

WOMEN AND AGRIBUSINESS - WORKING MIRACLES IN THE CHILEAN FRUIT SECTOR
Stephanie Barrientos, Anne Bee, Ann Matear, Isabel Vogel
Macmillan 1999 256pp ISBN 0-333-68293-9 16.99

Vandana Shiva
This book exposes the "new colonies" in the North's assault on the South's biological resources: the interior spaces of the bodies of women, plants and animals. Shiva argues that agreements such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) are based on Eurocentric notions of property and piracy and enable Northern capital to appropriate biodiversity from its original owners by defining as "nonscience" the seeds, medicinal plants, and indigenous knowledge of the South.
1997. 148 pages. ISBN 0-89608-555-4 WE333Z US$13.00
This book can also be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0896085554/qid=932563876/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442

1st International Conference; University of Melbourne 1-3 July 1994
Margaret Alston
Centre for Rural Social Research, Charles Stuart University
A report from the First International Conference on Women and Agriculture meeting in Melbourne in July 1994. The report outlines the main objectives of the conference and explores three key issues under the various topics - Women in Agriculture; Production and Land; and Sustainable Development and Economics

BIOPIRACY : THE PLUNDER OF NATURE AND KNOWLEDGE
WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE: FARMING FOR OUR FUTURE (Conference Report)
address production, environmental, economic and social issues affecting agriculture nationally and internationally.
promote a co-operative relationship between Australian and international agricultural networks through women in agriculture.
raise awareness of the contribution women make to agricultural and rural development, and increase the awareness of the economic, social, legal and cultural factors affecting their status.
provide a learning opportunity to develop new skills and access to information and networks. http://www.csu.edu.au/research/crsr/ruralsoc/v4n2p29.htm
WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE: WHAT DEVELOPMENT CAN DO
Mayra Buvinic and rekha Mehra Published in "Agricultural Development in the Third World", 2nd edition, John Staats and Carl Eicher, Jon Hopkins University Press. Chapter manuscript available from International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), 1717 Massachuchets Avenue NW, Suite 302, Washington, DC 20036, USA, Tel +1 202 797 0007, Fax +1 202 797 0020, icrw@igc.apc.org
CAN STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT WORK FOR WOMEN FARMERS?
Rekha Mehra, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 73 (Dec.) 1991, Article reprint available from International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), 1717 Massachuchets Avenue NW, Suite 302, Washington, DC 20036, USA, Tel +1 202 797 0007, Fax +1 202 797 0020, icrw@igc.apc.org
ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES FOR WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE
Produced by the International Federation for Women in Agriculture (India) and International Insitutite of Rural Reconstruction (Philippines)
This practical workbook focuses on 60 simple techonoliges to help farmers with animal husbandry, vegetable harvesting, organic farming, seed production and storage, pests and pesticides, water management and fish farming. Step by step intructions and easy to follow diagrams make this a valuable hands on manual for extension workers as well as neo literate farmers.
1997. 213 pages. ISBN 0-942717-69-4. WE339Z. US$20.00
This workbook can be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0942717694/qid%3D932562139/002-1060514-8742442
DEVELOPING THE SKILLS AND PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IRRIGATORS.
Experiences from smallholder irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa
By Felicity Chancellor, July 1997 (Report OD 135)
Available from: HR Wallingford Ltd. Howbery Park, Wallingford, OXON OX10 8BA, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 1491 835381 Fax: +44 (0) 1491 832233
or contact Felicity Chancellor at f.chancellor@hrwallingford.co.uk

GENDER-SENSITIVE IRRIGATION DESIGN
Felicity Chancellor, Nicola Hasnip, Neddy Matshalaga and Dave O’Neill. 9th March 1998
A two phases project in Zimbabwe. Phase I identifies and prioritises the design issues which have important gender implications in the region. Phase II will be devoted to testing hypotheses that address the prioritised research issues. The recent Workshop in Masvingo marked the close of Phase I, which began in October 1997.
Participants in Phase I were: HR Wallingford, UK, Silsoe Research Institute, UK, Institute of Development Studies, University of Zimbabwe, AGRITEX (Ministry of Agriculture), Zimbabwe, Support and assistance has been given by CARE, Zimbabwe
Phase I Report available from HR Wallingford Ltd. Howbery Park, Wallingford, OXON OX10 8BA, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 1491 835381 Fax: +44 (0) 1491 832233
or contact Felicity Chancellor at f.chancellor@hrwallingford.co.uk

TOOLS FOR THE FIELD
Methodology Handbook for Gender Analysis in Agriculture
Hilary Sims Feldstein and Janice Jiggins (Eds.). 1994
Using illustrative material from 38 cases in Africa, Asia and Latin America, Tools for the Field provides a presentation of how development planners, trainers and project coordinators can incorporate gender analysis in agriculture.
288 pages. ISBN 1-56549-028-2. WE056Z. US$18.95
This workbook can be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1565490282/qid=932562192/sr=1-4/002-1060514-8742442

MAF Policy Technical Paper 97/11
ISSN 1171-4662
ISBN 0-478-07458-1
By: Mary-Jane Rivers, Ann Pomeroy, Dianne Buchan, Brian Pomeroy and Rachel Fogarty
October 1997
The report discusses the dramatic and rapid change which the processes of globalisation, technological advance, demographic change and economic reform have brought to rural New Zealanders. It looks at the paid work of rural women and the visibility of their unpaid work, their involvement in decision making, and how the media and advertising portray them. An analysis is made of the strategies which women (and men) can use to ensure that the work undertaken by rural women receives appropriate recognition, to increase their involvement in decision-making, and assist women and men to adjust to their changed roles and achieve their aspirations and goals. Finally the report reminds us why it is important that rural women should participate in the economy and why constraints which impact on their participation should be removed. http://www.maf.govt.nz/MAFnet/publications/change/change.htm#E13E1

 

CHANGE AND DIVERSITY: OPPORTUNITIES FOR AND CONSTRAINTS ON RURAL WOMEN IN NEW ZEALAND
FOCUS ON AGRICULTURE. LOOKING AHEAD TO CSD-8
WWF International, 1999, 4 pages.
Discusses the background of the CSD-8 discussions and priority issues for CSD-8 such as freshwater management at the catchment level, efficient water use, GMO's, agricultural subsidies and pesticides.
For more information, contact Carole Saint-Laurent, WWF International, c/o WWF Canada, 70 Mayfield Avenue, Toronto, Canada, M6S 1K6, Tel/Fax +1 416 763 3437, carolestlaurent@compuserve.com

 

Food security

Institute of Development Studies, Sussex University (IDS) FOOD SECURITY UNIT ANNUAL REVIEW 1996-97
This site features a post conference report on the World Food Summit held in Rome in 1996. It provides feedback on the achievements and dissapointments associated with the Food Summit and features brief statements on various issues that were dealt with at the Summit which include agricultural marketing, safety nets and emergencies and rehabilitation.
http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/research/food/fsuar967.html
IDS FOOD SECURITY UNIT ANNUAL REVIEW 1995-1996
This site features a post conference report on the World Food Summit held in 1995 and provides feedback on the achievements associated with the Summit as well as the aspirations for the Summit held in 1996. Some of the brief statements deal with gender and humanitarian crises and food trade and aid.
http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/research/fsuar.html
HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS. AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Marisol Smith, Judy Pointing, Simon Maxwell et al.
IDS Development Bibliography 8 1993 65pp ISBN 1 85864 005 9 10.00
The concept of 'food security' is found as early as the 1970s, but the concept of 'household food security' is more recent: the bulk of the literature dates from the 1980s. This annotated Bibliography contains nearly 200 items which together trace developments in the concept of household food security. The evolution of food security, from concern with national food stocks in the 1970s to a preoccupation with individual entitlements in the 1980s, is an important part of the story told by this Bibliography.

Evaluations of the numerous Food-for-Work (FFW) projects in operation across Ethiopia are designed to assess their effectiveness, and are often defined by the objectives stated in the terms of reference. The paper asserts that the quality and usefulness of evaluations is greatly enhanced when the qualitative impacts of a project on the beneficiaries are included in the assessment since they often have a direct influence on conventional donor concerns such as targeting and the mode of payment. An evaluation framework is proposed which covers the design and delivery, outputs and impacts of a project and this structure is then adopted for a review of FFW evaluation documents. The analysis reveals the heavy emphasis on design and delivery mechanisms in the literature, and suggests the scope of evaluation exercises might be broadened to capture both the intended and unforeseen socio-economic impacts of a project.

FOOD-FOR-WORK IN ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGING THE SCOPE OF PROJECT EVALUATIONS
Liz Humphrey
IDS Working Paper 81 1999 38pp ISBN 1 85864 251 5 6.00

It is now widely recognized that women play a crucial, yet constrained and undervalued, role in ensuring food availability for household members, in normal times as well as in periods of stress. This annotated bibliography draws together the disparate literature on household food security and strategies for coping with food crises in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, with gender and women as the entry point.

GENDER, HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY AND COPING STRATEGIES
Julie Koch Laier, Susanna Davies, Kirsty Milward and Jane Kennan
IDS Development Bibliography 14 1996 120pp ISBN 1 85864 054 7 17.00

In April 1994, IDS held a workshop on 'Linking relief and development' as part of an ongoing project. This bibliography was compiled as part of that project and it brings together work produced under a variety of different headings, such as disaster and famine mitigation, and developmental approaches to relief. The bibliography includes conceptual work, examples of attempts to link relief and development on the ground, and case studies of national governments, NGOs, donors and regional organisations. A key terms index facilitates searches.

LINKING RELIEF AND DEVELOPMENT: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Will Campbell
IDS Development Bibliography 10 1994 62pp ISBN 1 85864 052 0 10.00

The above IDS and BRIDGE publications can be obtained at the following address:
IDS Publications Office, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton BN1 9RE, UK.
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 678269 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202 E.mail: ids.books@sussex.ac.uk

This selection of papers, from the proceedings of the Development Studies Association conference held in Dublin on the 150th Anniversary of the start of the Great Irish Famine, examines the historical background and the reasons why the spectre of famine continues to haunt much of the developing world today. These are set in the context of the concepts of food security and insecurity in order to emphasise our moral responsibility to act collectively to tackle not only famines but also less dramatic forms of food insecurity. Th book brings together the perspectives of eminent academics and policy-makers to give a comprehensive account of the threats to food security and the new approaches in aid to tackle them.This selection can be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0312210221/qid=932565761/sr=1-7/002-1060514-8742442

 

A WORLD WITHOUT FAMINE? NEW APPROACHES TO AID AND DEVELOPMENT
Edited by Helen O'Neill and John Toye
St Martin's Press, Inc 1997 236pp ISBN 0 312 21022 1 60.00
THE ANDEAN WOMEN, FOOD TECHNOLOGY AND FOOD SECURITY CONTEST: AN APPROPRIATE MODEL
This paper documents the mechanism, experiences and lessons learned from UNIFEM's 'Andean Women, Food Technology and Food Security Contest'. The model -which aims at the economic empowerment of rural women - has been validated, repeated and replicated in another geographical area, namely in Yucatan, Mexico. It has proven to be very effective for highlighting women's indigenous knowledge, experience and specific needs, related to their economic activities and natural resource management. In addition, the project mechanism increased women's access to appropriate technologies and it has promoted the exchange of experiences among women. It has also played a catalytic role in the development of communication channels between grassroots women and technical support organizations.
gopher://gopher.undp.org:70/00/unifem/poli-eco/eco/susta/contest

Unannotated Bibliography

To Cure All Hunger: Food Policy and Food Security in Sudan, 1991, edited by Simon Maxwell IT
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0903715163/qid=932566284/sr=1-5/002-1060514-8742442
Food Aid Reconsidered: Assessing the Impact on Third World Countries, 1995, edited by Edward Clay and Olav Stokke, Frank Cass
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0714641731/qid=932566426/sr=1-6/002-1060514-8742442
Adaptable Livelihoods: Coping with Food Insecurity in the Malian Sahel, 1995, Susanna Davies, Macmillan, hardback
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0312126824/qid=932566480/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442
Famine Early Warning and Response: The Missing Link, 1995, Margaret Buchanan-Smith and Susanna Davies, IT, paperback
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0903715325/qid%3D932566524/002-1060514-8742442
Food Security And The Environment, 1991 edited by Susanna Davies and Melissa Leach, Vol 22 No 3
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0903715392/qid=932566576/sr=1-3/002-1060514-8742442
Getting Institutions Right for Women in Development, Edited by Anne Marie Goetz, 1997
This book can be ordered online from amazon.com at the following url: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1856495264/qid=932566819/sr=1-1/002-1060514-8742442