NGO Documents for the Earth Summit, 1992
Non-Governmental Organization Alternative Treaties
at the '92 Global Forum
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Treaty 17. Treaty on Consumption and Lifestyle
1. This treaty is meant to promote reflection and debate among social movements and
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) leading to commitments for action within different
local and regional contexts.
2. The most serious global environment and development problems facing the world arise
from a world economic order characterized by ever expanding consumption and production,
which exhausts and contaminates our natural resources and creates and perpetuates gross
inequalities between and within nations. We can no longer tolerate a situation which has
brought us beyond the limits of the earth's carrying capacity and where twenty percent of
the people consume eighty percent of the world's resources. We must act to balance
ecological sustainability with equity between and within countries. It will be necessary
to develop new cultural and ethical values, transform economic structures and reorient our
3. Consumption and production patterns which are equitable and ecologically sustainable
are consistent with six basic principles which apply to consumers and producers.
4. We must reawaken to the reality that quality of life is based on the development of
human relationships, creativity, cultural and artistic expression, spirituality, reverence
for the natural world and celebration of life, and is not dependent upon increased
consumption of non-basic material goods.
5. The economic system should be restructured away from production and consumption of
non-basic goods for a few to focus on production of goods to meet basic human needs (e.g.
water, food, clothing, shelter, education, health care) for all persons.
6. Macro-economic systems should be restructured to include ecological and social costs
in the prices for all goods and services, including work in the unpaid and informal
7. Local communities must have full participation in the control and decision-making
power over the management of the use of natural resources on which their economy depends
to assure that these resources are used and consumed in an equitable and environmentally
8. Continuation of the current economic order carries with it the threat of serious or
irreversible environmental damage and associated social disruption. Therefore, lack of
full scientific certainty regarding potential impacts of conversion should not be used as
a reason to avoid immediate action.
9. Because the industrialized countries consume the vast proportion of the world's
natural resources and create the majority of the global pollution, they must bear the
primary responsibility for restoring the natural environment and compensating the victims
of environmental degradation.
10. The concept of environmental space, whereby all people have the right to equitable
shares of water, food, air, land and other resources within the carrying capacity of the
earth, should be the basis for equitable production and consumption.
11. While overall population growth is a danger to the health of the planet, it must be
recognized that population growth in the North, due to extremely high levels of per capita
consumption, is a far greater immediate environmental threat than population growth in the
South. Meeting basic needs is a prerequisite for stabilizing population growth.
12. Overall consumption and production must be eased back to fit within the
regenerative carrying capacity of the earth. Given the ecological and development crisis,
this transition must be completed within a few decades in order to avoid irreversible
damage to life on earth.
13. The use of energy, especially fossil fuels, must be reduced significantly.
Renewable sources which are less environmentally damaging should be promoted.
14. Due to their destructive social and environmental impacts, production and use of
military goods and weapons are not an acceptable part of an equitable and environmentally
15. Production and consumption of products with built-in obsolescence should be
stopped; consumption of products which are transported over long distances should be
reduced; and production processes which create toxic, hazardous, or radioactive wastes
should be halted.
16. Reduction in consumption should have priority over reuse or recycling of products.
17. Goods should be produced in closed cycles, whereby substances are continually
reused to the greatest extent.
18. Goods should be produced to have the least impact on the environment, with long
durability, high efficiency and simple repairability.
19. After reduction, reuse of goods should have priority over recycling.
20. Industries and government must take full responsibility for proper treatment
throughout the life cycle of the production process. If there are waste products, they
should be treated where they are produced and not transported across national boundaries.
21. Local decentralized recycling units should be a priority over large-scale
centralized recycling units due to their greater employment creation and lower use in
general of energy and transport.
22. Incineration of waste should not be considered as an alternative to recycling.
We, the undersigned, commit ourselves to the following actions:
23. Conduct, first, a self-assessment of our own lifestyle choices in light of the
elements of this treaty and make personal commitments towards change
24. Participate with business and industry, government, academia, voluntary and
community organizations, political groups and other personal affiliations to examine
jointly the ways we can improve our consumption and production patterns to meet basic
human needs around the world
25. Develop new concepts of wealth and associated indicators of development for
individuals, communities and nations which support new models of socio-economic and human
development which are equitable, environmentally sustainable and which recognize the full
range of human aspirations
26. Create awareness and set an example in our organizations and the community of more
balanced working environments which strengthen a sense of community, encourage human
creativity and depth in personal relationships and meet the physical, mental and spiritual
needs of people
27. Recognize the things in life which truly bring joy and satisfaction. Notice,
appreciate and care for the relationships that sustain us, whether with our fellow human
beings or with the natural world of which we are a part, and spend time enjoying and
28. Commit ourselves to learn from communities which live in sustainable ways utilizing
29. Analyze resistance to change from within consumer societies and find ways to
motivate people to accept new values and behavior.
Restructure and Redistribute
30. Influence international and national fiscal, monetary and trade policies to
include: integration of social and environmental costs into product prices, fair trade,
land redistribution, debt alleviation, equitable tax systems, regulation of transnational
corporations, an end to structural adjustment policies and changes in other structural
forces which negatively impact equitable and environmentally sustainable production and
31. Promote conversion to an equitable and ecologically sustainable economy, and take
responsibility for the needs of those whose livelihoods are negatively affected.
Strengthen local and regional economies as the basis for community self-reliance in
meeting basic needs for all people and research and promote alternative investment and
employment opportunities to assist those who are displaced when unsustainable industries
32. Support and participate in initiatives such as alternative trade markets, networks
and cooperatives with environmentally and socially responsible services and products.
Encourage local and regional consumer-producer networks such as community supported
agriculture (CSA). Especially encourage linking Northern consumers with Southern producers
to ensure fair payment and support environmentally sustainable production in the South
33. Establish and publish a set of criteria for socially just and environmentally
sustainable consuming and investing, appropriate to different regions
34. Participate in the creation and monitoring of national eco-labelling systems, based
on local and regional criteria set by NGOs and social movements, and share them
internationally. Urge governments to reform their trade laws to cover misleading and
inaccurate labelling on products
35. Join and initiate campaigns to pressure companies to end policies and production
processes which are socially and environmentally detrimental to communities around the
36. Support legislation to strengthen consumer rights, especially to ensure
environmentally sustainable, safe and healthy products, and establish the 'right to know'
laws which enable people to make informed consumption choices
37. Support, initiate and use 'green' funds that make socially and environmentally
38. Influence governments to counter the disproportionate influence of commercial
self-interests in government and the media
39. Support responsible tourism and create awareness about the negative effects of air
40. Participate in and support educational efforts, both formal and informal, which aim
to increase awareness of critical global issues and their root causes and
interrelationships, develop new values and attitudes and motivate changes in consumption,
production and lifestyle. Social movements and NGOs should:
a. provide educational methodologies which focus on values clarification and moving
beyond blame to constructive action
b. provide training and assistance for leaders of business and industry, government,
unions and others on consumption and production
c. initiate and support the training and work of environmental counselors who provide
responsible consumption and product information
d. cooperate with media to initiate and strengthen educational programs on the social
and environmental impacts of consumption and production and to build awareness of consumer
responsibility and potential
e. support school reform movements to ensure integration of lifestyle education for
f. ensure that courses related to marketing, economics, development, environment, etc.,
adapt their content to the new realities
g. ensure that equal access to consumption and lifestyle education living better with
less be made available to all.
Reduce and Reuse
41. Reduce impacts from 'industrialized agriculture' by consuming foods which are
locally grown by organic methods, low on the food chain, minimally processed and sold in
42. Reduce energy consumption through use reduction, conversion to renewable sources
and utilization of efficient energy systems
43. Reduce the waste and polluting effects of automobiles and aircraft through the
alternative use of railroads, bicycles and public transportation
44. Join coalitions and sponsor campaigns to pressure business and industry to
eliminate built-in obsolescence, promote longer durability of products, reduce production
of disposables and alter production processes which create toxic, hazardous or radioactive
45. Promote product maintenance and repair systems and second-hand markets
46. Reduce wasteful and energy intensive long distance transport of products by
encouraging consumption of local and regional products.
47. Promote, create and participate in local resource recovery systems, such as reuse
and recycling centers, which involve separation at source. Pressure government and
industry to financially support such local centers
48. Urge packaging and distributing companies to implement an effective deposit-return
system for containers and other packaging
49. Pressure industry and government to organize 'cradle to cradle' production
50. Urge Northern governments, international financial institutions and aid agencies to
give financial and technical support for resource recovery systems and management,
particularly in the South
51. Encourage industry to use recycled, before virgin, materials.
Coordination, Monitoring And Evaluation
52. Facilitate collaboration between grassroots, national and international social
movements and NGOs and strengthen our networks to:
53. Utilize national and international conferences of social movements and NGOs to
monitor and evaluate progress on this treaty. Social movements and NGOs in the
industrialized regions should bear primary responsibility for implementation of this
54. Build participation in and among social movements and NGOs at the national level to
participate in the implementation of the treaty. National networks should appoint staff to
coordinate the action plan
55. Set measures of and evaluate progress of sustainable consumption and production
56. Operate information clearinghouses (including a database) to facilitate the sharing
of lessons learned about consumer campaigns, research and actions of communities,
government and industry
57. Publish action alerts and sustain local and international campaigns by social
movements, NGOs and consumer groups
58. Research and publicize environmentally and socially sound initiatives
59. Organize recognition programs for responsible and successful initiatives of social
movements, governments, businesses, NGOs and others
60. Monitor government and industry actions on these issues
61. Strengthen our networks to monitor global economic systems and the transnational
actions of government and industry. Pressure the new United Nations Commission on
Sustainable Development (CSD) to assist networks of social movements and NGOs in their
62. Demand the significant involvement of social movements and NGOs in government
efforts and international bodies.
Groups To Be Involved
63. Social movements and NGOs will work to involve the widest number of organizations,
especially women's and consumer organizations, which agree to the principles of this
Signatories and supporters of this treaty will:
64. Urge NGO networks to commit staff time and administrative resources to the
implementation of the coordination, monitoring and evaluation
65. Commit significant material, financial and human resources to carrying out the
action plan and encourage the widest participation
66. Demand that companies provide part of their budgets, personnel and training time to
support positive change in consumption and production patterns
67. Encourage funding agencies to support the activities in the treaty
68. Encourage the United Nations, governments and funding agencies to support the
actions of this treaty.
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