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Methodologies of Good Practices

The Toolkit provides information on how to collect and analyse good practice examples and case studies.

Also, there are examples of guidelines and frameworks on how to write up a case study which includes a gender perspective.

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How to Collect and Analyse Good Practices                                     [ Up ]

1. Indicators of good practice: developing criteria; who to involve; how to incorporate criteria into the collection of data

2. Indicators of success: developing and measuring criteria; how to measure them, by who

3. Indicators of replicability: identifying circumstances under which particular strategies to be successfully replicated; how to measure them; by who

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Examples of Guidelines and Frameworks for Case Studies Including a Gender Perspective                                                                            [ Up ]


Framework for Case Studies on Women's Groups Involvement in Tourism Planning and Management at the Local / Sub-National Level

Taken from:
UNED-UK, 1999: Gender & Tourism. Employment and Participation of Women in Tourism. Report Prepared for the UN Commission on Sustainable Development 7th Session, April 1999.

Purpose: The purpose of collecting the case studies from around the world is to share ideas, strategies and experiences. Case studies shall serve as models to be replicated and learned from elsewhere. They need to include all relevant information about strategies, experiences, obstacles and how to overcome them to ensure replicability. Community participation at the local / sub-national level is the starting point and focus of the case studies - involvement in planning, decision-making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. However, the special focus is of course the gender responsiveness of the process, which means in particular improving participation, involvement of and benefits for women. It has to be made clear why and how a gender perspective was brought into the process and what have been the benefits, obstacles and lessons learnt.

Terminology: We use the term PROJECT referring to community based tourism strategies, initiatives, activities etc. involving women / women's groups at the local / sub-national level.)

Note: These guidelines do not exhaustively cover the issues that may arise. Case study authors may therefore include in their case study report information that is not necessarily covered by these guidelines as long as it is relevant and within the context provided below.

Note: This framework has been developed drawing largely upon guidelines for case study / good practices authors by SCP (Sustainable Cities Programme of UNEP & UNCHS), UNEP (Best Practices Programme), as well as UNDP (Gender in Development Programme)


Choose a short and illustrative title for your case study, mentioning the area / community where it is located.


Single authors should be based in the area or community the case study is covering and/or be involved with the project and be a member of the community. Co-authoring with a community / project member should be the preferred strategy in cases where one author (eg the initial contact person) is not a member of the community concerned.


Please provide a summary of about 200 words.


Background information about

the area and the community where the project is located

the tourism activities in the area / community (eg number of tourists, resorts, hotels, employees in formal & informal sectors etc.), if possible acknowledging the diversity of activities in the area / community

the major players / stakeholders in these activities

how the project relates to gender: highlight the differences in how women and men relate to, use, have access to and control tourism planning and management in the area / community; how women and men are affected in relation to the project. This is also related to the different activities of women and men, in fulfillment of their socially assigned roles.


Describe the key objective(s) of the project indicating how they relate to:

equity, in terms of equal distribution of benefits and costs with the full participation of women and men

efficiency, in terms of optimum utilisation of scarce resources

sustainability so that future needs are not compromised by present demands.


(Part 3 is a description of the project's experience in incorporating gender roles needs (ie gender responsiveness) in the stage of planning, strategy formulation, implementation, monitoring and/or evaluation. The project may encompass gender responsiveness in all the stages or just a few of them. It may be a community / area / resort wide process or it may deal with a particular element of tourism planning and management or a particular geographic area. The experience should be of practical value. The section should pay attention to the following points, amongst others:)

How information and expertise was improved, for example by:

collecting and storing data in a gender disaggregated manner

involving all stakeholders, taking into account possibilities for competing or conflicting interests / priorities of women and men within stakeholder groups, and recognising women's groups as stakeholders

setting project priorities in a participatory manner and taking into consideration how the project impacts on women and men

tapping expertise that was not previously utilised, including that of stakeholders - women and men.

How community based tourism strategies / intitiatives were improved by involving women (as well as men) in decision-making, for example by:

addressing the goals of the project by clarifying how issue-specific policy options affect women and men

considering implementation options that maximize people's participation and all available resources, bearing in mind the different roles and needs of women and men and the gendered access to and control of resources

involving all the stakeholders in strategy building (eg how you worked with NGOs, local / national government, tourism boards, industry, trade unions, donors, researchers, etc.).

How implementation of community based tourism strategies / intitiatives was made more effective, for example by:

utilizing the full range of implementation capabilities, eg utilizing untapped human resources - women and men

using a participatory and consultative mechanism to agree on action plans for implementation.

How gender responsiveness in the process (whole or part of) was institutionalised, for example by:

building capacities for gender sensitivity / responsiveness

incorporating gender responsiveness and sensitivity measures in the institutionalisation of broad-based participatory approaches to decision-making including problem identification, priority setting, conflict resolution, strategy building, action planning and implementation

continuously monitoring, evaluating and adjusting the process to respond to gender roles and needs

incorporating gender responsiveness indicators.

How your project mobilized and used resources in a focussed way to effect changes in tourism planning and management, for example by:

utilizing special opportunities such as radical change in policy or political structure

promoting networking between communities / areas and between community groups, eg women's groups, in order to share experiences and/or swap expertise

making strategic use of external support, particularly in the area of gender.


(The local experience(s) described in Part 3 are further assessed to identify and understand the factors and approaches which promoted - or inhibited - success. This part aims at understanding the things that made the project work better and more effectively, and the things which held it back and limited its effectiveness. The documentation of lessons learned should be restricted to those that relate to gender responsiveness. The details may vary from one case study to another but all should try to deal with the following points:)


In what ways was the project as shown in the case study different from previous experiences or situations in the community / area? What changes were a result of the project and which were due to events or forces outside the project? Which changes were deliberately introduced and which evolved independently? You may look at changes in relation to:

the range of actors or stakeholders involved (disaggregated by gender) and the nature of involvement

the methods and procedures for public participation

the formal structure of institutions and administrative arrangements

interaction / collaboration between the different stakeholders (eg between community / women's groups and government or tourism industry)

the relationship with broader national or regional policies and programmes

the nature and use of information and/or expertise


Were the objectives or your project achieved? What factors explain the way the community based tourism strategy / initiative worked out in practice? What factors influenced the outcome of your initiative over-all, and with respect to which particular aspects? To what degree are these factors amenable to control and modification, and how? All of the relevant factors should be explored, both the positive and the negative, so that the dynamics of the process can be properly understood. This will require looking at factors such as:

sustainable political support

dealing with opposition, eg struggles working with bodies which have a vested interest in the tourism activities

degree of simplicity or complexity of the process

new sources and/or use of information

gender training, sensitization education and awareness

attitudes and understanding of the principal actors

the roles of community groups, NGOs, women's groups and other key players

financial incentives and clear understanding of potential benefits

the impact and influence of external development assistance and support


Based on the analysis, what are the important general points to be made - the lessons to be learned - additional to those discussed above? Lessons learned should relate to the gender responsiveness of the project. In particular, what can be said in relation to:

replicability - the potential for repeating successes in other communities, areas, regions, countries?

requirements for insitutional capacity building and strengthening to incorporate the success factors of the project

requirements of capacity building for the various stakeholders

requirements for further research

any significant changes in strategy proposed, based on the experience of documenting the case study.


ANNEXES: Any statistics, tables, graphs, maps, charts and other such materials should be included only as an annex. The quantity of such material should be kept at a minimum necessary to support key points in the text. HOWEVER: If possible, please send us PHOTOGRAPHS or other graphic material which can be used to illustrate the project.

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