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In this section you will find information and relevant documents relating to employment. Click on the links to go to the relevant documents and paragraphs or download all listed documents in one TXT FILE (246 KB) or ZIP FILE (72 KB).

International Agreements

World Summit on Social Development, Copenhagen 1995

Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development:

Commitment 3
Commitment 8

Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development:
Introduction, points 2 &3

Chapter I : An Enabling Environment for Social Development
Basis for action and objectives, point 7, Section A, point 9 (a-k), Action 12f

Chapter II : Eradication of Poverty
Basis for action and objectives, Section 23 and 25, 
Action A (b), 27(a), 29(a), 34 (a, b, c), Section C (b, c, e)

Chapter III : Expansion of Productive Employment and Reduction of Unemployment
Basis for action and objectives
Action A point 48-50 and 51 (f, h), 
Action B, point 52 (f, g) 
Action C, point 54, 56, 
Action D, point 57-62, 
Action E, points 64(b, g) and 65

Chapter IV : Social Integration
Basis for action and objectives, points 66-70, 
Action A, point 71 (a-h), 
Action B, point 73 (a-k), 
Action C, point 74 (d), 
Action E, point 77 (c)

Chapter V : Implementation and Follow-Up
Basis for action and objectives, 
Action A, points 83 (a, c, f, g, h)
Action C, point 91 (c), 
Action D, point 98 (c)

Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development
Chapeau, points 2 and 9
Section A: point 14, 16 (h, g), 23
Commitment 1 (f), 
Commitment 2 (b, c, d), 
Commitment 3 (a-k), 
Commitment 5 (j), 
Commitment 6 (i, u), 
Commitment 8 (h, p)

UN Commission on Social Development 
Annex, Section B. Employment, point 26-32

1997 Follow-up to WSSD (a,c)
1998 Follow-up to WSSD (b)
Section B. Draft decisions (3a)
Section C. Matters brought to the attention to the Council (3, 10, 16)

Section A, Draft resolution II: point 7, 14, 16
Section D. Agreed conclusions 
    I. points 1,2
    II. points 3-7
    III. points 8-14
    IV. points 15-21 (a-e)
1997 summary

Section B. Resolutions and decisions, points 1, 8
Part A, point 26
Part B, points 49, 50, 51, 52, 55,56
Part C, points 70, 71
1998 summary, chapter II, point 5


Copenhagen +5, Geneva 2000: Review of the World Summit for Social Development
Chapter 3: Expansion of Productive Employment and Reduction of Unemployment

Advance unedited version of the Comprehensive Report on the Implementation of the Outcome of the World Summit for Social Development Report of the Secretary-General
PART I: Overview
Section A, points 1, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, 
Section B, points 20, 21, 22, 24, 27, 30-38, 51, 57, 67
Section D, points 75, 76, 78, 79, 81, 103, 104, 105, 108, 109


Agenda 21, Rio 1992
Chapter 3. Combating Poverty (Sections 3.3, 3.4, 3.7, 3.10)
Chapter 14. Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development, point 14.2, 14.24
Chapter 24. Global Action for Women Towards Sustainable and Equitable Development, points 24.1, 24.3
Chapter 25. Children and Youth in Sustainable Development, points A.25.3, 25.6, 25.9b
Chapter 29. Strengthening the Role of Workers and Their Trade Unions, points 29.2 & 29.5
Chapter 30. Strengthening the Role of Business and Industry, point 30.1, 30.17
Chapter 36. Promoting Education, Public Awareness and Training, points 36.12, 36.17, 36.18, 36.22

Earth Summit II, 1997
Chapter 3. Implementation of Agenda 21 in Areas Requiring Urgent Action
Chapter A. Integration of economic, social and environmental objectives, points 23, 24, 30
Chapter B. Sectors and issues
points 43 (re Energy)
point 63 (re Land and Sustainable Agriculture)

Human Rights Review
Follow-up to the World Conference on Human Rights, New York 1998
VI. Equal status and human rights of women, point 41
VIII. Special protection, points 60, 70, 71

3rd World Conference on Women, Nairobi 1985
Summary: Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women

Fourth World Conference on Women
Platform for Action
Chapter 1, Resolution 1, Annex II

Section II Global Framework, points 16, 17, 19, 21, 31

IV. Strategic Objectives and Actions
    A. Women and poverty
    Section 52, 53, 58(b, h, i , j, k, l)
    B. Education and Training of Women
    Points 75, 82, 82(d)    
    C. Women and Health
    Strategic objective C.2., point 107 (b)
    Points 151, 152, 153, 155, 157, 158, 160, 160, 162, 163
    Strategic objective C.5., point 93
    F. Women and the economy
    Strategic objective F.1, point 165 (c,g,m)
    Strategic objective F.2, point 166 (a,c,e,f,g,,j)
    Strategic objective F.3, point 173, 176(e)
    Strategic objective F.5, point 178
    J. Women and the media
    Strategic objective J.1. point 239
    H. Institutional mechanism for the advancement of women
    Strategic Objective H.2.  point 204 (b, c, f), point 205 (c,f,g,h)

International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo 1994
Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development

Chapter 3: Interrelationships between Population, Sustained Economic Growth and Sustainable Development
B. Population, sustained economic growth and poverty
Section 3.13, 3.15, 3.17, 3.29

Chapter 4 Gender Equality, Equity and Empowerment of Women, 
Section A: Empowerment of Women, points 4.3 (b), 4..4 (b), 4.21, 4.26, 
Section B. Programme management and human resource development, points 13.9, 13.19

Chapter 5 : The Family, its Roles, Rights, Composition and Structure
Section A, point 5.1, Section B, point 5.7 & 5.10

Chapter 9 Population Distribution, Urbanization and Internal Migration, points 9.4, 9.10, 9.15, 9.22

Chapter 11 : Population, Development and Education, Section A, point 11.4

Chapter 13 : National Action

Habitat II Conference, Istanbul 1996
Declaration on Human Settlements, point 4 & 6

Preamble, points 8, 9, 21

Chapter II Goals and Principals, point 28 &29

Chapter IV Global Plan of Action 
Section B: Adequate Shelter for All, 
2. Shelter Policies, points 67 & 69

Section C. Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world
C.3. Social development: eradication of poverty, creation of productive employment and social integration
Section 115, 116(a), 117(a), 118(a, f, i), 119(f, i), 120(e), 123(c)
C 7: Sustainable Transport and Communication Systems, points 147
C 9: Improving urban economics (157,158, 159)

Section E. International cooperation and coordination,
E 4, Technology transfer and information exchange, points 205 & 206

Section F. Implementation and follow-up of the Habitat Agenda

UN Commissions

UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
Chapter I, part 4, point 40; part 6, point 76, 77
Section D, part 2, point 168

Decision 4/1, point 4a

Section B, Decision 6/2 part A, point 2, part B, point 8, 9, 10; part C, point 5;
    Annex II, point 4, 12; part B, point 14; part C, point 28, 31, 55

Decision 7/3 (3i, 5a); Annex, general considerations, point 3, 10

UN Commission on the Status of Women 1996 (40th Session)
Report on the 40th session
Agreed conclusions 1996/2 
E. Women and global communications
- Section D. Adapting the legal system (12c, 12e), 
- Section E. Adopting and promoting a family support policy and encouraging reconciliation of family and professional life for women and men (14, 15),  
- Section F Resolution 40/6, points 9 (d,e),
- Annex, II Specific Comments, Section F. Women and the Economy, 36
- Chapter II Follow-up
  Implementation of strategic objectives and actions in the critical areas of concern: Poverty, 62 (4e, 4f. 4g), 

UN Conventions

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: CEDAW, article 11

International Bill of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 23 and 25III, 
Preamble, part III article 66, 7 (c), 10  


UN Agencies & Intergovernmental Bodies reports

Human Development Report 1996
The Report argues that economic growth, if not properly managed, can be jobless, voiceless, ruthless, rootless and futureless, and thus detrimental to human development. The quality of growth is therefore as important as its quantity¾ for poverty reduction, human development and sustainability.
The Report concludes that the links between economic growth and human development must be deliberately forged and regularly fortified by skillful and intelligent policy management. It identifies employment as critical for translating the benefits of economic growth into the lives of people. But for this to happen, new patterns of growth will need to be developed and sustained well into the 21st century¾ and new mechanisms must be developed to integrate the weak and the vulnerable into the expanding global economy.


The UN-business Global Compact in action
The last year of the 20th century has seen a constructive new relationship develop between the United Nations and business, with each side recognizing that their respective goals are mutually supporting.
Peace, development, the rule of law and harmonious and constructive relations between nations are fundamental goals of the United Nations. Achievement of these goals enables business to expand and prosper.
By creating wealth and jobs, by stimulating scientific and technical progress, and by constantly improving products under the stimulus of competition, companies help to defeat poverty and improve the quality of life. And poverty is the enemy of the humanitarian values espoused by the UN.
These complementary goals led the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan, to propose a Global Compact between the UN and business to uphold a set of core values in the areas of human rights, labour standards and environmental practice.
Visit for a  list of corporate examples.


The Global Compact
At the World Economic Forum in Davos, UN Secretary-General Kofi A. Annan challenged world business leaders to "embrace and enact" the Global Compact, both in their individual corporate practices and by supporting appropriate public policies. These principles cover topics in human rights, labour and environment.
Visit this site to get an overview of these principles, a section on how to transform these principles into management practices, a section on partners and initiatives and more.


UNCTAD is the focal point within the United Nations system for the integrated treatment of development and interrelated issues in the areas of trade, finance, technology, investment, and sustainable development.
Main goals are to maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries, and to help them face challenges arising from globalization and integrate into the world economy, on an equitable basis.
UNCTAD pursues its goals through research and policy analysis, intergovernmental deliberations, technical cooperation, and interaction with civil society and the business sector.



NGO Documents

NGO Copenhagen Alternative Declaration
March 1995
This Declaration builds upon efforts emanating from the NGO Development Caucus during the Social Summit preparatory meetings, the Oslo Fjord Declaration, and other national and international citizens' initiatives.


NGO Documents for the Earth Summit, 1992 Treaty 17. Treaty on Consumption and Lifestyle, points 21 and 31
Treaty 18. Poverty Treaty, points 13 and 17
Treaty 46. Treaty on Urbanization, point 26


NGO Documents for CSD 1999 Gender & Tourism. Women's Employment and Participation, report submitted to CSD-7 by UNED-UK
Summary at


The Panos Institute
Panos Briefing No 33, May 1999
New opportunities, real threats
1. The differing impacts of globalisation
2. Job creation, job destruction
3. Easy come, easy go?
4. Race to the bottom?
5. The Feminisation of Employment
6. Maximising benefits, minimising risks


UNA-USA Business Council for the UN


Worker Rights in the Global Economy
1999 - 2000
UNA-USA Global Policy Project
In the interest of promoting substantive discussion, UNA-USA is pleased to provide a broad reference list of groups offering a range of perspectives on the issue of worker "rights" and the impact of globalization on labor. Though not comprehensive, this list represents many of the well-known organizations working variously on questions of labor, commerce, trade, economic, or legal policy. Many of the descriptions are taken directly or paraphrased from the organizations' own web sites.


European Business Network for Social Cohesion
EBNSC (European Business Network for Social Cohesion) is a non-profit organisation that tries to stimulate governments and multinationals in Europe to employ, train & educate long-term unemployed & socially excluded people.
EBNSC helps companies to share knowledge and experience. It is a business-driven membership network whose mission is to encourage and help companies to prosper in ways that stimulate job growth, increase employability and prevent social exclusion; thereby contributing to a sustainable economy and a more just society. EBNSC, in partnership with the European Commission, provides a bridge between business, national governments and European policy makers, creating a greater understanding of their respective roles. Through EBNSC, member companies now have the opportunity to define the European Corporate Social Responsibility agenda

Visit the site's Resource Centre at and learn about best practices of corporate social responsibility in Europe, including 500 business case studies addressing many different CSR issue areas and a list of universities with courses in this subject.
Links and Publications on CSR and information on European Social Policies.



Religious Communities

European Bahá'í Business Forum (EBBF)
EBBF is a global professional non-profit association of men and women practicing and promoting moral and ethical values in business. Membership is global, its activities are focused in Europe. EBBF is drawing increasing attention in Europe through its publications, its participation in United Nations summit conferences, and its projects to promote entrepreneurship and ethics in many Eastern and Central European countries.
Paper on Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Success
One of the core beliefs of the European Bahá'í Business Forum is that business has a social responsibility as well as an economic mission. This article seeks to articulate and communicate what social responsibility means and why it makes good business sense to integrate it into business strategies and practices. It does this by:

Outlining some forces at work and trends affecting corporations
Explaining six key dimensions of corporate social responsibility
Making a case for integrating CSR into sustainable strategies
Describing how CSR can be built into management practices
Looking beyond social responsibility



Business & Industry

International Chamber of Commerce 
ICC is the world business organization, the representative body that speaks with authority on behalf of enterprises from all sectors in every part of the world.
ICC promotes an open international trade and investment system and the market economy. Its conviction that trade is a powerful force for peace and prosperity dates from the organization's origins early in the century. The small group of far-sighted business leaders who founded ICC called themselves "the merchants of peace".
Because its member companies and associations are themselves engaged in international business, ICC has the authority in making rules that govern the conduct of business across borders. Although these rules are voluntary, they are observed in transactions every day and have become part of the fabric of international trade.
Within a year of the creation of the United Nations, ICC was granted consultative status at the highest level with the UN and its specialized agencies.
ICC was founded in 1919. Today it groups thousands of member companies and associations from over 130 countries. National committees in the world's major capitals coordinate with their membership to address the concerns of the business community and to convey to their governments the business views formulated by ICC.

ICC in cooperation with the UN
Working with the UN
Current joint projects with the UN and its agencies
The UN and ICC are engaged in a series of initiatives that give substance to Kofi Annan’s "global compact" and these are only a beginning. Some have been in place for several years and continue to produce results. Others are more recent.Here are some items. Technical though many of them are, all contribute to the objectives set at the New York meeting of ICC and UN leaders:
Energy Environment
Health Intellectual Property


The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)
The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a coalition of 120 international companies committed to sustainable development. Members are drawn from 30 countries and more than 20 major industrial sectors. Information on the WBCSD's Corporate Social Responsibility Stakeholder Dialogue, The Netherlands, 6 - 8 September, 1998


WBCSD in collaboration with United Nations

International Aid and Trade
Conference & Exhibition in New York 31 May - 1 June 2000
Every year in New York City, International Aid & Trade brings together heads of UN agencies, government and NGO representatives, and major international CEOs to strengthen the partnership between the United Nations and the private sector. This event allows UN and business executives to review their joint projects on an annual basis, define future directions, and draw lessons from their collaboration. Corporations showcase their goods and services to the community of UN and World Bank procurement officers and find out about upcoming contracts and trends.
International Aid & Trade 2000 is a unique event. It will be the first time that heads of UN agencies, CEOs, and representatives from governments and NGOs come together under one roof in New York City to strengthen their partnership around the world. Corporations will display their equipment and expertise. Procurement officers from the UN and the World Bank will visit the exhibition and explain their bidding procedures at a special workshop. UN officials will explain why the United Nations must work with business in the next century to reduce poverty, safeguard the environment, and maintain an open economy that benefits all countries. UN and business representatives will sit at the same table to develop concrete projects in a country recovering from conflict.


The Copenhagen Center
The Copenhagen Centre – New Partnership for Social Responsibility was established to stimulate the creation of partnerships between the public and private sectors with the purpose of promoting social cohesion and fighting social exclusion. Its primary geographic scope is Europe, but the Centre believes in sharing experience with any governmental or non-governmental organisation or private enterprise, which combat social exclusion.


Business for Social Responsibility (BSR)
BSR's mission is to help its member companies achieve long-term commercial success by implementing policies and practices that honor high ethical standards and meet their responsibilities to all who are impacted by their decisions.
Sections on BSR Education Funds: 
Business and Human Rights Programme
Community Economic Development


Global Business Responsibility Resource Center
The Resource Center provides businesses with the information they need to understand and implement more responsible policies and practices, and promotes increased knowledge and collaboration among companies and between business and other sectors. It aims at helping companies achieve sustained commercial success in ways that honor high ethical standards and benefit people, communities, and the environment.
The Global Business Responsibility Resource Center is a resource covering the full spectrum of corporate social responsibility issues. At the heart of the Center is a growing collection of topic overviews providing basic information, company examples, and links to helping resources. The website is the Center's primary vehicle for disseminating this information. Over time, the Center will develop a comprehensive set of strategic tools and trainings, and engage in consultations.
Topics include

Corporate Social Responsibility
Business Ethics
Community Involvement
Community Economic Development
Human Rights
Mission, Vision, Values
Social Audits and Accountability



Trade Unions

European Trade Union Confederation - ETUC
The ETUC seeks to influence the European Union by making direct representations to the various institutions (Commission, Parliament, Council), and by ensuring trade union participation in numerous advisory bodies The European Works Councils Directive on information and consultation rights is among the most recent results of ETUC action. At the same time, the ETUC seeks to establish industrial relations with the employers at a European level through the ‘social dialogue’. This is mirrored by sectoral social dialogues under the responsibility of the European Industry Federations.


International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

jobs and justice

Trade, Labour Standards, Development, Employment, Health and Safety, Environment, Structural Adjustment, Research


World Confederation of Labor (WCL)
The World Confederation of Labour (WCL) is an international trade union confederation uniting autonomous and democratic trade unions from 113 countries all over the world . Its head office is located in Brussels, Belgium, and it has over 26 million members, mainly from Third World countries. The past three years have been marked by the affiliation of mostly African and Central and Eastern European organisations. The latest Congress took place in Bangkok, Thailand (Asia), from 1st to the 6th of December 1997 under the theme of "Struggle to change course".
WCL has become a workers’ organisation that draws its inspiration from humanist, ethical and moral values and protects the interests of the workers, women and men alike, throughout the world. The WCL has also adopted an independent attitude towards governments, political parties, power blocs, religions and churches.
Human Right and International Labour Standards Department


World Directory of Trade Unions
there are over 1500 links to international union organisations, national unions, locals and union resource sites in every continent.
Visit this site for more information on:
- Trade Union Resources on the Web
- Labour Movement News
- Schedule of Conferences, etc. 


Trade Union Advisory Committee - OECD
The Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC) to the OECD is an interface for labour unions with the OECD.  It is an international trade union organisation which has consultative status with the OECD and its various committees. TUAC's role is now one of ensuring that global markets are balanced by an effective social dimension. Through regular consultations with various OECD committees, the secretariat, and member governments TUAC coordinates and represents the views of the trade union movement in the industrialized countries. It is also responsible for coordinating the trade union input to the annual G7 economic summits and employment conferences. 



Research, Education

Institute for Employment Research
The Institute for Employment Research is one of Europe's leading centres for research in the labour market field. Its work focuses upon the operation of labour markets and socio-economic processes related to employment and unemployment in the UK at national, regional and local levels. It includes comparative European research on employment and training.
The Institute offers a multi-disciplinary environment for research. Research methods include both quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques based upon primary or secondary data sources.
The Institute has excellent access to the wide range of survey data sources available in the UK and Europe. Econometric analysis of large datasets, survey-based sociological research, and studies using in-depth interviews are regularly employed.


Business Ethics Resources on the WWW
Here you find some lists of WWW sites which may be of interest to people doing research in the various branches of applied ethics. Note that these lists are not limited to sites about applied ethics.



UK Government's Social Exclusion Unit
The latest in the series of policy reports from the UK Government's Social Exclusion Unit has been released. Entitled 'Jobs for All', the report for Policy Action Team 1 addresses issues around employment and social exclusion. The report also includes an examination of the role transport and access to jobs plays in the equation and it makes a series of policy recommendation.
However, it is 186 pages long and takes several minutes to download and half a forest to print. For an abridged version of the report see 
This details only the part of the report on mobility and access to jobs.


Descriptions have been taken and adapted from the web-sites linked to.


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