UN Conventions Focus
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Click for more information on the six key conventions to come out of the  Rio Earth Summit in 1992:

 UN Convention on Biological Diversity

  Convention to Combat Desertification

UN Framework Climate Change Convention

POPs Persistent Organic Pollutants

PICs Prior Informed Consents

Agreement on Straddling & Migratory Fish Stocks


The table below shows the other main multilateral agreements relating to sustainable development. Click on the links for more information...




1971 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)


1972 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention)


1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)


1973 Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships as amended by the 1978 Protocol 


1979 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (Bonn Convention)


1979 Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention)


1979 UN-ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (& Protocols...)


1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)


1989 Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel)


1990 Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation


1991 Agreement on the Conservation of Bats in Europe (EUROBATS)


1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty


1991 Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo)


1992 Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans in the Baltic and North Sea (ASCOBANS)


1992 Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North East Atlantic (OSPAR)


1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Helsinki Convention) 


1995 Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds Agreement


1997 Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management


1998 Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus)



About Conventions

Click below to find out more about:

Multilateral Environmental Agreements: Trends in Verification

and also

Verification Mechanisms in International Environmental Agreements

 - both VERTIC publications. The Verification, Research, Training and Information Centre (VERTIC) is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organisation. Its mission is to promote effective and efficient verification as a means of ensuring confidence in the implementation of international agreements and intra-national agreements with international involvement. VERTIC also concerns itself with the negotiation monitoring and implementation of such agreements and the establishment of confidence-building measures. While maintaining a watching brief on all aspects of verification, VERTIC specialises in:     
Peace and Security, Arms Control and Disarmament, and the Environment.

Click on the VERTIC logo to go straight to their website


Click on the link below for an explanation of the relevant terms:



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UN Conventions Focus / Global Agencies / UN Conference Focus

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