Annex 3: Glossary

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Annex III : Glossary



"The quality or state of being accountable; especially : an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for one's actions <public officials lacking accountability>" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary & Thesaurus)

"accountable: Synonyms responsible, amenable, answerable, liable Contrasted Words absolute, arbitrary, autocratic; imperious, magisterial, masterful Antonyms unaccountable" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary & Thesaurus)


Civil society

"sometimes defined as the realm of social activity and organisations falling outside the spheres of government and business; […] (or) defined as all sectors and activities falling outside the public sector, and thus embracing the work of business, voluntary and community organisations, trade unions, faiths, professional bodies and consumer organisations" (World Humanity Action Trust 2000: 35)



"Etymology: Late Latin collaboratus, past participle of collaborare to labor together, from Latin com- + laborare to labor 1 : to work jointly with others or together especially in an intellectual endeavour 2 : to cooperate with or willingly assist an enemy of one's country and especially an occupying force 3 : to cooperate with an agency or instrumentality with which one is not immediately connected" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary)



"1: an act or instance of transmitting 2a: information communicated b: a verbal or written message 3a: a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior <the function of pheromones in insect communication>; also : exchange of information b: personal rapport <a lack of communication between old and young persons> 4 plural a : a system (as of telephones) for communicating b : a system of routes for moving troops, supplies, and vehicles c: personnel engaged in communicating 5 plural but singular or plural in construction a: a technique for expressing ideas effectively (as in speech) b: the technology of the transmission of information (as by print or telecommunication). 1 Synonyms message, directive, word 2 Synonyms contact, commerce, communion, intercommunication, intercourse 3 interchange of thoughts or opinions through shared symbols <the difficulties of communication between people of different cultural backgrounds> Synonyms communion, converse, intercommunication, intercourse Related Words exchange, interchange; conversing, discussing, talking; conversation, discussion, talk; advice, intelligence, news, tidings" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary & Thesaurus)

Important psychological aspects have been brought into the discussion, for example, by Watzlawick et al. (1967) who put forward a number of "axioms of communication" (excerpt):

You cannot not communicate: meaning that even when we do not want to communicate, the mere fact that we are not communicating does transmit a message.

Every communication has a content and a relationship aspect – i.e. one referring to the content of the message and one referring to the relationship between the persons communicating. In a way, the latter determines the former and thus constitutes some kind of meta-communication. More importantly, the two are not always in accordance - for example, people can convey an unfriendly message in a friendly tone. To clarify these levels and establish accordance, explicit meta-communication – Communication about communication - is an important tool.

Meta-communication: [from Greek 'meta' = higher] communication about communication: exchanging information, views, opinions about the way we communicate in a given situation and structure. An important tool in communication processes, particularly in groups of high diversity of language, culture and background (see above: Watzlawick's axioms of human communication)



"The perceived incompatibility of goals between two or more parties" (Smith & Mackie 1995, Glossary)

Dietz (2001) discusses seven factors which "contribute to making environmental problems especially contentious:

  1. A muddling of facts and values

  2. Facts that are uncertain

  3. Values that are unformed

  4. Changes that are concrete and permanent

  5. Harm to innocents and inequities

  6. Confusion of boundaries between the public and the private

  7. A confusion of competences."



"1. A theory of government which, in its purest form, holds that the state should be controlled by all the people, each sharing equally in privileges, duties, and responsibilities and each participating in person in the government, as in the city-states of ancient Greece. In practice, control is vested in elective officers as representatives who may be upheld or removed by the people. 2. A government so conducted; a state so governed; the mass of the people. 3. Political, legal, or social equality" (Webster Dictionary 1992: 261)

"Democracy: Etymology: Middle French democratie, from Late Latin democratia, from Greek dEmokratia, from dEmos + -kratia –cracy. 1 a : government by the people; especially : rule of the majority b : a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections 2 : a political unit that has a democratic government 3 capitalized : the principles and policies of the Democratic party in the U.S. 4 : the common people especially when constituting the source of political authority 5 : the absence of hereditary or arbitrary class distinctions or privileges" (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary)

"We need to understand that there is much more to democracy than simply which candidate or party has majority support. (…) Yes, democracy implies majority rule. But that does not mean that minorities should be excluded from any say in decisions. Minority views should never be silenced. The minority must always be free to state its case, so that people can hear both sides before deciding who is right" (UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, 2000).

"In a democracy, all power flows from the people who are the sovereign. Democracy can therefore be truly defined as how the common people would like to be governed, not how some people, including elected representatives, think they should be governed" (People First, a trust promoted by Development Alternatives, India: 'Earth Charter Initiative').

"Democracy is an ancient mode of societal decision making that has its roots in the fundamental elements of human adaptation – communication and social learning. Democracy is usually traced to the Greeks, but is actually a heritage from the earliest human social groups. It is at the core of our cultural and biological heritage, and was the mode of decision making for food foraging societies that constitute 99 percent of human history. Humans have evolved to coordinate group action by discussion and shape individual action through social learning and reflection While the forms of democratic processes have been modified throughout history, and must be modified again, the basic concept has very deep roots" (Dietz 1995, xvii-xviii). (This seems to be based on a very broad understanding of democracy – old concepts of democracy, such as the Greek, were not based on the participation and equity of ALL, but of 'free citizens', meaning the male 'aristocracy' (no women, no slaves, etc.)



"1. The state of being diverse; dissimillitude. 2. Variety: a diversity of interests" (Webster Dictionary 1992: 286)

"Diverse: 1. Differing essentially; distinct. 2. (obs.) Capable of various forms; multiform" (Webster Dictionary 1992: 286)

"Diversity: Synonyms variety, diverseness, multeity, multifariousness, multiformity, multiplicity, variousness Related Words difference, dissimilarity, distinction, divergence, divergency, unlikeness Antonyms uniformity; identity" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Thesaurus)



"1. Fairness or impartiality; justness. 2. Something that is fair or equitable. 3. (law) a. Justice administered between litigants which is base don natural reason or ethical judgment. b. That field of jurisprudence superseding the legal remedies of statute law and common law when these are considered inadequate or inflexible for the purposes of justice to the parties concerned. c. A right recognized by a court of equity. 4. Value in excess of mortgage or other liens." (Webster Dictionary 1992: 330)

"Etymology: Middle English equite, from Middle French equité, from Latin aequitat-, aequitas, from aequus equal, fair. 1 a : justice according to natural law or right; specifically : freedom from bias or favoritism b : something that is equitable 2 a : a system of law originating in the English chancery and comprising a settled and formal body of legal and procedural rules and doctrines that supplement, aid, or override common and statute law and are designed to protect rights and enforce duties fixed by substantive law b : trial or remedial justice under or by the rules and doctrines of equity c : a body of legal doctrines and rules developed to enlarge, supplement, or override a narrow rigid system of law 3 a : a right, claim, or interest existing or valid in equity b : the money value of a property or of an interest in a property in excess of claims or liens against it c : a risk interest or ownership right in property d : the common stock of a corporation. Related Words equitableness, justness. Contrasted Words bias, discrimination, partiality, unfairness. Antonyms inequity" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary & Thesaurus)

Norm of equity: "The shared view that demands that the rewards obtained by the partners in a relationship should be proportional to their inputs" (Smith & Mackie 1995, Glossary)



"having, involving, or displaying special skill or knowledge derived from training or experience" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary)



"1. Exercise of authority; direction; control 2. manner or system of government or regulation" (Webster Dictionary 1992: 420)

"Governance is the sum of the many ways individuals and institutions, public and private, manage their common affairs." (Commission on Global Governance 1995: 2)

"the strategic guidance of a particular organisation, set of organisational relationships or network of governmental and other institutions; governance is thus distant from the work of governments; it is a process of strategic oversight of organisations and of the implementation of their goals; governance of resource management systems refers to the legal and other institutional arrangements for setting the broad policies which regulate the use of resources" (World Humanity Action Trust 2000: 36)

"There is a shift taking place in our understanding and practice of governance. Governance used to be principally about what governments do. Today, the concept is increasingly about balancing the roles, responsibilities, accountabilities and capabilities of: different levels of governments – local, national, regional and global; and different actors or sectors in society – public, private and civil society organisations and individual citizens. Governance can be defined as the framework through which political, economic, social and administrative authority is exercised at local, national and international levels. In today's world this framework consists of a wide variety of mechanisms, processes, institutions and relationships (including partnerships) through which individual citizens, groups and organisations can express their interests, exercise their rights and responsibilities, and mediate their difference" (The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum 1996).



"Inclusive: Synonyms all-around, comprehensive, general, global, overall, sweeping Synonyms encyclopedic, comprehensive" (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Thesaurus)



"Etymology: Middle English, from Old English & Old French; Old English justice, from Old French justice, from Latin justitia, from justus. 1a: the maintenance or administration of what is just especially by the impartial adjustment of conflicting claims or the assignment of merited rewards or punishments b: Judge c: the administration of law; especially : the establishment or determination of rights according to the rules of law or equity 2a : the quality of being just, impartial, or fair b(1): the principle or ideal of just dealing or right action (2): conformity to this principle or ideal : righteousness c : the quality of conforming to law 3: conformity to truth, fact, or reason : correctness". Thesaurus: 1 the action, practice, or obligation of awarding each his just due <his justice was stern but absolutely fair Synonym equity Related Words evenness, fairness, impartiality Contrasted Words foul play, inequity, unjustness; bias, leaning, one-sidedness, partiality Antonyms injustice (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary & Thesaurus)

"1. Conformity in conduct or practices to the principles of right or of positive law; regard for or fulfilment of obligations; rectitude; honesty. 2. The moral principle by which actions are determined as just or unjust. 3. Adherence to truth of fact; impartiality. 4. The rendering of what is due or merited; just requital or consideration. 5. The quality of being just or reasonable; rightness; equitableness. 6. A judge, a of the US Supreme Court. 7. Administration of law; the forms and processes by which it is made effective. 8. Right of authority. 9. (theol) One of God's attributes, by virtue of which he wills equal laws and makes just awards. 10. Exactness or precision; justness. (…) Synonyms: equity; fairness; faithfulness; honor; impartiality; integrity; justness; law; lawfulness; legality; propriety; rectitude; right; righteousness; rightfulness; truth; uprightness.(…) In its governmental relations, justice is the giving to every person exactly what he deserves, not necessarily involving any consideration of what any other may deserve; equity (the quality of being equal) is giving every one as much advantage, privilege, or consideration as is given to any other; it is that which is equally right or just to all concerned; equity is a close synonym for fairness and impartiality, but it has a legal precision that those words have not. In legal proceedings, the system of equity, devised to supply the insufficiencies of law, deals with cases to which the law by reason of its universality cannot apply. Integrity, rectitude, right, righteousness, and virtue denote conformity of personal conduct to the moral law, and thus necessarily include justice, which is giving others that which is their due. Lawfulness is an ambiguous word, meaning in its narrower sense mere legality, which may be far from justice, but in its higher sense signifying accordance with the supreme law or right, and thus including perfect justice. Justness refers rather to logical relations than to practical matters; as, we speak of the justness of a statement or of a criticism." (Webster Dictionary 1992: 532)



"A process in which group members are permitted to influence and motivate others to help attain group goals" (Smith & Mackie 1995, Glossary)

"Leadership: The office or position of a leader; guidance" (Webster Dictionary 1992: 556)

"Leader: 1. One who lads or conducts; a guide; a commander. (…) 3. That which lead, or occupies a chief place, as the foremost horse or a team" (Webster Dictionary 1992: 556)

"To lead: 1. To go with or ahead of so as to show the way; guide. 2. To draw along; guide by or as by pulling: to lead a person by the hand. 3. To serve as a direction or route for: The path led them to the valley. 4. To cause to go in a certain course of direction, as wire, water, etc. 5. a. to direct the affairs or actions of (…) 7. To influence or control the opinions, thoughts, actions of; induce. (…) 9. To begin or open: to lead a discussion. (…) 12. to act as guide; conduct. 13. To have leadership or command; be in control" (Webster Dictionary 1992: 556)

"Leadership: 1: the office or position of a leader 2: capacity to lead 3: the act or an instance of leading 4: leaders " (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary)

"Collaborative leadership: A style of leadership where leaders view their roles primarily as convincing, catalyzing, and facilitating the work of others. Collaborative leadership focuses on bringing citizens together and helping them build trust and the skills for collaboration" (Markowitz 2000: 161).



"the quality or state of being legitimate.

legitimate: Etymology: Middle English legitimat, from Medieval Latin legitimatus, past participle of legitimare to legitimate, from Latin legitimus legitimate, from leg-, lex law 1a: lawfully begotten; specifically : born in wedlock b: having full filial rights and obligations by birth <a legitimate child> 2: being exactly as purposed : neither spurious nor false <legitimate grievance> <a legitimate practitioner> 3a: accordant with law or with established legal forms and requirements <a legitimate government> b: ruling by or based on the strict principle of hereditary right <a legitimate king> 4: conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules and standards <legitimate advertising expenditure> <legitimate inference> 5: relating to plays acted by professional actors but not including revues, burlesque, or some forms of musical comedy <the legitimate theater> synonym see lawful. Synonyms LAWFUL, innocent, legal, licit Related Word cogent, sound, valid; acknowledged, recognized; customary, usual; natural, normal, regular, typical Antonyms illegitimate 2 Synonyms true, rightful Antonyms arbitrary" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary & Thesaurus)

"Legitimacy is generally understood as the right to be and to do something in society – a sense that an organization is lawful, admissible and justified in its chosen course of action – but there are different ways to validate these things: through representation (which usually confers to the right to participate in decision-making), and through effectiveness (which only confers to the right to be heard). Legitimacy in membership bodies is claimed through the normal democratic processes of elections and formal sanctions that ensure that an agency is representative of, and accountable to, its constituents. (…) By contrast, non-membership NGOs define their legitimacy according to legal compliance, effective oversight by their trustees, and recognition by other legitimate bodies that they have valuable knowledge and skills to bring to the table" (Edwards 2000: pp20).



"Participate: To take part or have a share in common with others; partake.

Participatory: Based on or involving participation, especially active, voluntary participation in a political system" (Webster Dictionary 1992: 708)

"1: the act of participating 2: the state of being related to a larger whole" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary)

Public participation: Can be defined as "forums for exchange that are organised for the purpose of facilitating communication between government, citizens, stakeholders and interest groups, and businesses regarding a specific decision or problem" (Renn et al. 1996: 2).



"1: the state of being a partner: participation. 2a: a legal relation existing between two or more persons contractually associated as joint principals in a business b: the persons joined together in a partnership 3 : a relationship resembling a legal partnership and usually involving close cooperation between parties having specified and joint rights and responsibilities. Text: Synonyms association, affiliation, alliance, cahoots, combination, conjunction, connection, hook-up, tie-up, togetherness Related Words consociation, fellowship" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary & Thesaurus)



"1: the quality or state of being responsible: as a: moral, legal, or mental accountability b: reliability, trustworthiness 2: something for which one is responsible: burden.

responsible: 1a: liable to be called on to answer b(1): liable to be called to account as the primary cause, motive, or agent <a committee responsible for the job> (2) : being the cause or explanation <mechanical defects were responsible for the accident> c: liable to legal review or in case of fault to penalties 2a: able to answer for one's conduct and obligations : trustworthy b: able to choose for oneself between right and wrong 3: marked by or involving responsibility or accountability <responsible financial policies> <a responsible job> 4: politically answerable; especially : required to submit to the electorate if defeated by the legislature -- used especially of the British cabinet - Synonyms responsible, answerable, accountable, amenable, liable mean subject to being held to account. Responsible implies holding a specific office, duty, or trust <the bureau responsible for revenue collection>. Answerable suggests a relation between one having a moral or legal obligation and a court or other authority charged with oversight of its observance <an intelligence agency answerable to Congress>. Accountable suggests imminence of retribution for unfulfilled trust or violated obligation <elected officials are accountable to the voters>. Amenable and liable stress the fact of subjection to review, censure, or control by a designated authority under certain conditions <laws are amenable to judicial review> <not liable for the debts of the former spouse>." (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary & Thesaurus)



"Etymology: French solidarité, from solidaire characterized by solidarity, from Latin solidum whole sum, from neuter of solidus solid. : unity (as of a group or class) that produces or is based on community of interests, objectives, and standards. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary)

Text: a feeling of unity (as in interests, standards, and responsibilities) that binds members of a group together <solidarity among union members is essential in negotiations> Synonyms cohesion, solidarism, togetherness Related Words cohesiveness; oneness, singleness, undividedness; integrity, solidity, union, unity; esprit, esprit de corps; firmness, fixity Contrasted Words separation; discord, dissension, schism; confusion, disorder, disorganization Antonyms division (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Thesaurus)



The Environment Council, UK: "Stakeholder – in the wider sense of the word 'stakeholder' refers to people who have an interest in a particular decision, either as individuals or representatives of a group"

The United Nations on companies' stakeholders: "Stakeholders [of the private sector] can be identified as those individuals of groups that have an interest, or take an interest, in the behaviour of a company both within and without the normal mode of operation. They therefore establish what the social responsibility of the company entails, or, at least, how they perceive it to be" (UN Secretary General 2000: Development of Guidelines on the role and social responsibilities of the private sector; A/AC.253/21)

The Copenhagen Charter on companies' stakeholders: "Stakeholders are those groups of individuals, organisations, or companies that affect and/or are affected by a company, for example shareholders, customers/clients, employees, business partners, NGOs, and the local community" (1999)

The World Business Council on Sustainable Development: "The broadest definition of ‘stakeholder’ brings in anyone who affects or is affected by a company’s operations. The key new perception is that companies need to expand the range of interests considered in any new development from customers, shareholders, management and employees to such people as suppliers, local communities and pressure groups." (

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): For the purpose of this Action Plan [EPA Stakeholder Involvement Action Plan], the definition of stakeholder is very broad, i.e. those who have a sake in EPA's decisions. It includes but is not limited to the following categories: businesses, trade organisations, environmental organisations, consumer and health groups, recreational and educational groups, environmental justice groups, organised labour, federal, state and local governments, tribes, and the general public" (ibid. 1998).



"1: the quality or state of being transparent 2: something transparent; especially : a picture (as on film) viewed by light shining through it or by projection" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary)



"1. The state, property, or product of being united, physically, socially, or morally; oneness. 2. Union, as of constituent parts or elements: national unity. 3. Agreement of parts: harmonious adjustment of constituent elements; sameness of character: the unity of two writings. 4. The fact something's being a whole that is more than or different from its parts or their sum. 5. Singleness of purpose or action. 6. A state of general good feeling; mutual understanding; concord: brethren dwelling together in unity." (Webster Dictionary 1992: 1057)

"Etymology: Middle English unite, from Middle French unité, from Latin unitat-, unitas, from unus one -- more at ONE. 1a: the quality or state of not being multiple : oneness b(1): a definite amount taken as one or for which 1 is made to stand in calculation <in a table of natural sines the radius of the circle is regarded as unity> (2) : identity element. 2a: a condition of harmony : accord b: continuity without deviation or change (as in purpose or action) 3a: the quality or state of being made one : unification b: a combination or ordering of parts in a literary or artistic production that constitutes a whole or promotes an undivided total effect; also : the resulting singleness of effect or symmetry and consistency of style and character 4: a totality of related parts : an entity that is a complex or systematic whole 5: any of three principles of dramatic structure derived by French classicists from Aristotle's Poetics and requiring a play to have a single action represented as occurring in one place and within one day 6 capitalized : a 20th century American religious movement that emphasizes spiritual sources of health and prosperity. Text: 1 the condition of being or consisting of one <unity -- the idea conveyed by whatever we visualize as one thing> Synonyms individuality, oneness, singleness, singularity, singularness Related Words identity, selfsameness, soleness, uniqueness, uniquity Antonyms multiplicity Synonyms harmony, concord, rapport Related Words agreement, identity, oneness, union; solidarity; conformance, congruity Antonyms disunity" (Merriem-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary & Thesaurus)


Contact Minu Hemmati and Felix Dodds for further information.