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Examples PART I

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Background Paper For the Workshop

"Stakeholder Citizenship and the Health Sector"

2/3 February 2002, NY


2. Examples of Activities, Organisations, Networks / PART II


Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD): Biotechnology

Biotechnology and Food Safety NGO Consultation Meeting: The OECD has been helping governments since 1982 in forging international guidelines for the development of products using modern biotechnology. The OECD is now intensifying its work in the areas of biotechnology and food safety. One important element in this work is consultation with civil society.

A large number of representatives of scientific associations and NGOs met to discuss biotechnology and food safety in November 1999. Representatives of some 50 bodies from civil society and from the scientific and business communities attended. Discussions focused on three main topics - consumer concerns, environmental concerns and agro-food concerns.

Also see UNED case study at

OECD and Biotechnology: Health care in the developed world is facing a massive surge of new knowledge and new technologies, deriving in particular from modern biotechnology and genomics, and driven forward by the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industry. How should governments react, respond or intelligently anticipate the resulting implications for public policy? In February 1995, the OECD established a working group on Human-Health-Related Biotechnologies. The first responsibility of this group was to oversee a major study on the economic aspects of such innovations. This report contains two parts:

·         Part I: Biotechnology and Medical Innovation: Socio-Economic Assessment of the Technology, the Potential and the Products.   As the title indicates, this volume focuses on the details of the technology and on methods of economic evaluation and presents illustrative case studies. It addresses the increasing interest in such methods, not only in governments, but also among academic researchers with an interest in public policy and in economics; as well as industrial firms, large and small, whose innovations are expected to withstand such appraisal.
(see also Health Policy Brief Part I)

·         Part II: Biotechnology, Medical Innovation and the Economy:   The Key Relationships. This part of the report looks at economic appraisals and decisions e.g. on reimbursement, which are an important dimension of socio-economic assessment. It is in the public interest, indeed essential for survival and competitiveness in an open world economy, that governments encourage innovation and provide appropriate conditions within which companies may successfully launch products and services, profiting from the general rapid progress of knowledge and scientific understanding.



Partnership Brokers Forum

Building partnerships for sustainable development: A project of the Resource Centre for the social dimensions of business practices, commissioned by the Partners in Action programme, a partnership of the United Nations Staff College and The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum. Brokers carry responsibility for the process of building a partnership and ensuring its effective functioning. The partnership building process is a complex process with four distinct phases - each phase requires the broker to fufil specific tasks or responsibilities which in turn require distinct roles or skills. To support the broker in this process, a leadership compass will help the broker select the appropriate roles within phases. The broker is representative of a new kind of leader, one that guides and supports rather than directs.



People First India

Universal Charter of Good Governance for global sustainability: At the turn of the millennium, the world is witnessing major advancements in science and technological innovations. New frontiers are being established in technologies such as information, genetics, ocean, space and nano. The world is also witnessing unprecedented expansion in industrial growth, generation of wealth, financial markets and globalisation.




Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA)

PRIA is a Delhi based voluntary development organisation, striving for socio-economic and socio political equality and welfare. PRIA undertakes a wide range of social initiatives within the perspective of participatory development and research. Its key interventions are in the area of Civil Society Development, Local Self Governance, Environmentally Sustainable Industrial Development and promotion of citizen's Participation in Development. Women and marginalised section find special focus in all our work. PRIA is proud to reach out locally, nationally and globally.

The three primary strategies of PRIA's work comprise of:

Capacity Building entails direct capacities of various stakeholder of civil society.

Policy Advocacy involves influencing policies  enabling participation and empowerment of the marginalised.

Knowledge Building entails critical and systematic study of issues and institutions which enable or disable citizen participation in the democratic processes."Knowledge is power" is the essence of PRIA’s philosophy.

Projects undertaken at PRIA include: AIDS and the Health Care Workers; Case Study on VEC; Citizen Education; Civil Society, Citizenship and Social Action; Dynamics of realising safe and healthy working environment; Enabling Environment for Civil Society; Environmental Damages and unaccountable deaths of Migrant Labour Gujrat earthquake; Governance of Voluntary Development Organisations; International Forum on Capacity Building of Southern NGO's; John Hopkins Comparative Non Profit Sector Project; Mind Project; Multi Stake Holders dialogue for Environmentally Sustainable Industrial Development Perspective; Participatory Research - An Alternative; Plight of race Course Workers in New Delhi; PPME Alumni Intervention; PRIA 20 years Aniversary Programme; Promoting Citizens Advocacy and Monitoring; Reflections on Participatory Evaluation; Resourcing Civil Society; Strategic Planning; Strengthening Citizen's Monitoring; Strengthning Capacity for Participatory Development; Study on Assessing Impact of Capacity Building interventions of RSOs and PRIA at the grassroots; Study on Effectiveness of village level Institutions; Study on Shraddanand Mahilashram's Parishramalaya; The Common Wealth Millennium Project; The plight of workers in Export Processing Zone in India; Understanding Partcipation; Women Workers: Gender Concerns vis -a -vis Occupational health; Womens Empowerment through Literacy and Livelihood Project

AIDS and the Health Care Workers: The study ‘AIDS and Health Care Workers’ is based on a detailed survey of three selected hospitals of the Municipal Corporation, Mumbai, Maharastra. The Municipal Corporation, Mumbai runs three medical colleges, one dental college, five nursing colleges and three colleges for physiotherapists. The corporation also manages 25 public hospitals and 25 maternity hospitals besides a network of municipal dispensaries and community health workers. These sections are represented by many unions. The study selected three large hospitals -- KEM at Parel, the TB Hospital at Sewri and Nair Hospital in Central Mumbai.

Governance of Voluntary Development Organisations (-Dr. Rajesh Tandon and Veronica George): The governance of VDOs has remained an area of limited study, though it is beginning to gain attention. This paper attempts to describe the various dimensions, aspects and issues related to governance of VDOs.

Multi Stake Holders dialogue for Environmentally Sustainable Industrial Development Perspective: Industrial development is generally welcomed by all - Governments that plan and provide the infra structure for the development, by industrial houses and contractors who invest in implementing these plans and look forward to obtaining profits, and the public at large - who see industrialisation as an opportunity for employment and a way to enhance their quality of life. On the other hand, there are voluntary organisations and environmentalists who understand the need for industrialisation, however, they concern themselves more with the negative impacts of this process - pollution, degradation of natural resources, the dislocation or displacement of communities, the breakdown of structures that support traditional occupations and community institutions.

This continuous struggle between people and alien policy, environment and development is not a new phenomenon. The struggle seldom finds space for resolution, since all the parties concerned are very definite in their opinions and views and negotiations are seen as weakening of stands. What is needed therefore is a sustainable and realistic solution where the interests of all parties are protected and a conducive atmosphere created for the co-existence of community and the industry. For this, an alternate model should be developed keeping in mind the ground realities and limitations.

The document highlights the proceedings of a Public Hearing on March 14, 1999 in Chiplun (Maharashtra) organised by Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA) and Parivartan:



Stakeholder Forum for Our Common Future (formerly UNED Forum)

Stakeholder Forum has gathered a multi-stakeholder International Advisory Board (IAB), which comprises of some of the most important bodies, associations, networks and organisations within the various stakeholder groups. Stakeholder Forum therefore has the opportunity to work closely with those groups and those who represent them at an international, and in some cases, regional level. Successfully forming this IAB is an expression of the trust that stakeholders have in Stakeholder Forum as a body that neutrally and effectively facilitates a space that stakeholders can use to build trust and relations, engage in dialogue with each other.

Stakeholder Forum's activities around the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) since 1993 have build a track record of experience with working with all kinds of stakeholders, developing mechanisms of stakeholder participation at CSD meetings, facilitating stakeholder communication. Stakeholder Forum was closely involved in developing the CSD Stakeholder Dialogue mechanism, and has been actively participating in preparing and carrying out the CSD Dialogues since 1998.

Stakeholder Forum has also coordinated multi-stakeholder dialogues at other international fora, notably the 8th Informal Environment Ministers Meeting (Bergen, Norway, Sept 2000); and the International Conference on Freshwater (Bonn, Germany, Dec 2001).

Stakeholder Forum's recent work on multi-stakeholder processes adds to the body of relevant experience (all material at A methodological framework and a step-by-step guide for multi-stakeholder processes (MSPs) was developed, in order to contribute to the development of principles of stakeholder participation and engagement. The draft report went through broad consultations and was discussed at an international multi-stakeholder workshop in April 2001. The report presents a number of building blocks for MSPs: analysing 20 examples at international, national and local levels, clarifying the goals and various types of MSPs; their role in the context of the ongoing debate on (global) governance; their value and ideological basis; and relevant findings from the social sciences. The step-by-step guide is a check-list of questions, which need to be addressed when designing, carrying out and evaluating an MSP. The result of this work has been published as a book with Earthscan, London, in January 2002: "Multi-Stakeholder Processes for Governance and Sustainability. Beyond Deadlock and Conflict" (by Minu Hemmati).

Stakeholder Forum's domestic activities in the UK further add to the body of relevant expertise. Since 1994, UNED-UK, the domestic programme of Stakeholder Forum, has facilitated multi-stakeholder round tables on various issues that have been on the international agenda. Results of these round tables have been fed into the UK Government, the EU and the UN. Since 2000, UNED-UK is working on the UK preparations for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and has been commissioned by the UK Government to organise such round tables on a number of issues identified as UK priorities (see

Stakeholder Forum's international work programme has been focusing on the preparations for the World Summit on Sustainable Development since 1999. The international team has developed a main information hub for all stakeholders ( website; Network 2002 newsletter; background briefing papers; etc) and engaged in capacity building with stakeholders from around the globe to enable them to make efficient use of and contributions to the Summit process. It will continue to gather stakeholders around the preparatory meetings to provide space for exchange, identifying common ground, and overcoming differences, with the goal of making stakeholder participation as effective, transparent and equitable as possible, and strengthen the intergovernmental process.

Relevant publications & websites:

Dodds, F (ed) 2000 (2nd edition 2001). Earth Summit 2002. A New Deal. London: Earthscan

Dodds, F (ed) 1997. The Way Forward. Beyond Agenda 21. London: Earthscan

Enayati, J 2001. Online Debates on Earth Summit 2002 on Sustainable Cities; Participation of Marginalized People; HIV / AIDS; Corporate Responsibility. Report,

Hemmati, M 2002. Multi-Stakeholder Processes for Governance and Sustainability. Beyond Deadlock and Conflict. London: Earthscan (Jan 2002)

Hemmati, M & Schaefer, B (ed) 2001. Gender Perspectives for Earth Summit 2002: Energy, Transport, Information for Decision-Making. Report from an International Workshop held in Berlin, Germany, Jan 2001, hosted by the German Government, the Heinrich Boell Foundation, and UNED Forum

Hemmati, M 2000. Access and Benefit-Sharing: Relevant International Agreements and Issues for Dialogue Between Stakeholders. Background paper the Joint UNED Forum & Novartis International Side Event CSD-8: "Access and Benefit-Sharing: Building Equitable Partnerships Between Local Communities and International Corporations?"

McHarry, J 2001. UNED Forum Background Paper for LifeOnline: Promoting Involvement in the Search for Sustainability - We are all Stakeholders Now.

Morley, D (ed) 2000. Access to Water and Energy. Report from the Multi-stakeholder Dialogue at the 8th Informal Environment Ministers Meeting in Bergen, Norway, 2000

Osborn, D & Bigg, T (eds) 1997. Earth Summit II. Outcome and Analysis. Edited by Derek Osborn & Tom Bigg. London: Earthscan main information hub on Earth Summit 2002 work on multi-stakeholder processes on domestic round tables and preparations for Earth Summit 2002 Gender Perspectives on Earth Summit 2002 workshop, Jan 2001 social development material & process for Copenhagen+5 Healthy Planet Forum 1999; NGOs at the Pan-European Environment & Health Conference, London 1999


The Copenhagen Center - New Partnerships for Social Responsibility

The Copenhagen Centre's conference "Partnerships and social responsibility in the new economy" in June 2001 aims at taking further the development and dissemination of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and to encourage the implementation of new social partnerships across national borders and across the borders between private and public, market and society. The concern is to ensure that CSR and new social partnerships will become part of everyday practice and mainstream policies within the realm of the New Economy.




The Global Public Policy Project

The purpose of the Global Public Policy Project was to prepare a report that would examine a range of global challenges and the potential contribution of global public policy networks to address them. Since the publication of the final report, the project's staff has presented its findings on multiple opportunities in the United States as well as Europe. The present activities of the Global Public Policy Project are concentrated in the research field as well as providing a platform for interested people to exchange information and 'lessons learned' about global public policy networks.


Case Studies on GPP Networks at



Trade Knowledge Network

Research Project: Trade and Sustainable Development Resources. Building on the ongoing UNCTAD/UNDP country project on Trade and Environment in India, the proposed project aims at reviewing and using experience in business partnerships and multi-stakeholder approaches to support India's efforts in meeting certain objectives in the context of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) in a cost-effective and developmental-benign way.




United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Creation of Multi-stakeholder Advisory Panels on Environmentally Sound and Economically Viable Management of Secondary Lead in India and the Philippines: The project focuses on two clusters of activities:

·         a preparatory, analytical phase for creating the multi-stakeholder panels, which reviews lead supply and demand in India and the Philippines and the effectiveness and efficiency of trade restrictions and supportive measures to enhance sustainable lead management;

·         a series of meetings of a multi-stakeholder advisory panel in India and the Philippines identifying the most suitable instruments and policy measures for encouraging sustainable lead management, including sound lead recovery.




United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), established in 1972, works to encourage sustainable development through sound environmental practices everywhere. Its activities cover a wide range of issues, from atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, the promotion of environmental science and information, to an early warning and emergency response capacity to deal with environmental disasters and emergencies. UNEP’s present priorities include:

Environmental information, assessment and research, including environmental emergency response capacity and strengthening of early warning and assessment functions,

Enhanced coordination of environmental conventions and development and development of policy instruments;

Fresh water

Technology transfer and industry

Support to Africa


Including an article on the mutli-stakeholder work on voluntary initiatives: "UNEP In First Multi-stakeholder Workshop On Voluntary Initiatives" (September 2000): Thirtyfive representatives of industry, governments, labour, environmental groups and academic institutions met recently with senior officers of UNEP to review the lessons learnt from voluntary initiatives and the steps that need to be taken if they are to become environmentally effective and publicly credible tools for sustainability. Experiences were shared on different types of voluntary initiatives, including: Responsible Care programme of the chemical industry; Experience of the Netherlands Government with negotiated voluntary agreements; Partnership of the international financial industry with UNEP; Sustainable Fisheries Initiative of the Marine Stewardship Council ; Automotive Voluntary Initiative of the European Commission; and Sustainable workplace initiatives of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions.

Participants agreed that voluntary initiatives must not undermine the need for an effective regulatory and legislative framework, and that key challenges in the future include finding the right policy mix, ensuring that workers are involved, and clarifying the role of non governmental organizations and other stakeholders. "Workers are both producers and consumers and voluntary initiatives will not contribute to sustainable development if workers are not involved in their design, implementation and monitoring" emphasized Lucien Royer, Coordinator of Health, Safety and Environment of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU). "Our experience is that voluntary initiatives do not go beyond business as usual if they do not involve societal actors other than industry in setting the targets that we need to achieve," said Gulio Volpi, World Wildlife Fund.

The 1992 Earth Summit formally encouraged the development of voluntary initiatives in Agenda 21 as an experimental policy tool to achieve sustainable development objectives. Voluntary initiatives have since multiplied in use and diversity, ranging from improving environmental practices in specific industry sectors such as chemicals and finance, sustainable management of resources such as forests and fisheries. But "there are diverse points of view as to the real environmental effectiveness of voluntary initiatives, their relation to regulations and other government policy tools, and the role of different stakeholders in making voluntary initiatives an effective tool for sustainable development" pointed out Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel, Director, UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics.



United Nations Global Compact

At the World Economic Forum, Davos, on 31 January 1999, UN Secretary-General Kofi A. Annan challenged world business leaders to "embrace and enact" the Global Compact, both in their individual corporate practices and by supporting appropriate public policies. These principles cover topics in human rights, labour and environment. You can find examples of how companies are currently incorporating aspects of the nine principles into their business practices.

Compact participants have announced a range of partnership projects with NGO's, UN agencies, and other civil society groups. Project themes include HIV/AIDS, the digital divide, education, community development, disaster response, health and the environment. Companies involved include Aventis, Ericsson, Placer Dome, Unilever, Globo, ABB, Aventis, Martha Tilaar, Eskom, Suez, and SAP.

Cooperation with GRI: The Global Compact and the Global Reporting Initiative are voluntary initiatives that complement each other. The Global Compact promotes responsible corporate citizenship through learning and action on the basis of nine universal principles. The Global Reporting Initiative promotes transparency and accountability through reporting. The two initiatives have always supported each other with the United Nations Environment Programme being a key partner in both."

 "Companies participating in both initiatives have long stressed the understanding that the GRI is a practical expression of the UN Secretary-General's Global Compact. This understanding was reaffirmed at a recent meeting of the Global Compact, held in London / Denham. Therefore, companies may wish to use their involvement in the GRI as an example of their commitment to the Global Compact. This recognition serves to confirm the complimentarity between the Global Compact and the Global Reporting Initiative and will facilitate corporate engagement in both initiatives."

Also see UNED case study at

And:Citizens Compact on the United Nations and Corporations at



United Nations Secretary General's Report on Partnerships

A UN Secretary General's Report on "Cooperation between the United Nations and all relevant partners, in particular the private sector", which was prepared for a UN General Assembly debate in November 2001.

Jane Nelson, who drafted the report, has considered a large number of sources and inputs from governments, UN agencies, and stakeholders, and produced a very useful resource indeed. The Global Compact website's comment: "While most media coverage of the delayed debate of the General Assembly has focused on the threat of international terrorism, the formal agenda has prompted member states to consider other central issues not widely reported, such as the evolving scope of UN partnerships with other international actors, particularly from the private sector. In preparation for the General Assembly debate the Global Compact office prepared an extensive report exploring the range of cooperation between the UN, the international business community, and civil society. The study was drafted by Jane Nelson, a public policy specialist with the Prince of Wales International Business Leaders Forum. The report provides a comprehensive survey of the UN's partnership activities, including the Global Compact. The analysis discusses, among other issues, measures to enhance policy dialogue and advocacy; the mobilization of private funds; information-sharing and learning; engaging the private sector in developing countries; and partnerships to facilitate private investment. The findings were shaped by consultations with 23 member states and 27 UN agencies."

websites: (DOC file); (PDF file)

Results of the respective General Assembly debate (GA Resoultion A/RES/56/76) will be available at



World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)

Quarterly newsletter is called Sustain

WBCSD case studies : This new on-line case study collection showcases some of the best business actions for sustainable development from all over the globe, illustrating how companies work independently or with various stakeholders to integrate the challenge of sustainable development into their business activity. WBCSD works in a number of areas:

Innovation & Technology


Managing and Understanding Change

Dialogue & Partnership

Providing and Informing Customer Choice

Corporate Social Responsibility

Creating Sustainable Livelihoods



World Health Organisation (WHO)

Speech by Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland (

Polio: Polio Eradication Partners : Rotary International, Government of Canada (CIDA), Government of Denmark (DANIDA), UK Government (DFID), and Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau/KfW (Germany), UNICEF, WHO, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Guineaworm (Dracunculiasis) : In 1993, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Programme on Health Mapping & GIS was created to service the mapping and monitoring needs of the Dracunculiasis Eradication Programme.

In May 1998, the 50th WHO Assembly urged all countries, governmental and non governmental organizations to provide full political support and the necessary resources to facilitate the completion of eradication of dracunculiasis as soon as technically feasible. Activities should be integrated within the health services delivery system at community level to complement the effectiveness of eradication activities. The Assembly called for intensified implementation of case containment, financial resource mobilization and special support for the needs of Sudan. The most powerful tools in monitoring eradication of dracunculiasis are village-based case containment and surveillance. Community members were educated regarding prevention and containment and are encouraged to filter drinking water. Case-containment has been implemented in most endemic villages.

Heart disease / Lung cancer: Norway, Finland, Canada and Australia have dramatically reduced heart disease and lung cancer over the past decade through food policy, tobacco control, attention to transport and energy policy and public health training. Achieved through complementary fiscal policy, regulation, legislation, health education, and public info campaigns and responsive health services.

Roll Back Malaria is an initiative to provide developing countries with a new treatment for drug resistant malaria. The World Bank says: Roll Back Malaria is a global partnership jointly founded by WHO, UNICEF, World Bank, and UNDP in 1998, aiming to halve the malaria burden world-wide by 2010. Calls for joint action by governments, private sector, industry, NGOs and local communities across health, education, agriculture, water, and infrastructure sectors. The major threat is to children and pregnant women, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Large-scale trials of insecticide-treated mosquito nets in different epidemiological settings in Africa have shown that reductions in overall child mortality of 15-33% can be achieved.

Procedure: Focus on home as the first line of treatment; avoid development of vertical or stand-alone programs; and expand capacity through partnerships. Local agents provide community education, marketing campaigns and distribution of essential commodities eg mosquito nets and insecticides. The public sector has the primary responsibility for policy making, standard setting, quality control, targeted subsidies and regulation.

European Health and Environment Conference: Third Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health for Europe – Action in Partnership, London 1999. A multi-stakeholder event at European level, involving 11 working groups set up by WHO, run by WHO, with substantial NGO input and with a parallel NGO Forum, supported by WHO and other UN agencies. The scope was health and environment in its broadest sense; with the objective of furthering debate on a range of issues and helping to develop various protocols/agreements, eg Freshwater, and Transport and Health, and a Ministerial Declaration on Environment and Health Priorities for Europe in 21st century. website: Also see UNED case study at



World Information Transfer (WIT)

World Information Transfer, Inc., (WIT) is a not-for-profit, non-governmental organization in consultative status with the United Nations, promoting environmental health and literacy. In 1987, inspired by the Chernobyl nuclear tragedy, WIT was formed in recognition of the pressing need to provide accurate actionable information about our deteriorating global environment and its effect on human health to opinion leaders and concerned citizens around the world. WIT exercises its mandate through:

1.       The publication of the World Ecology Report, a quarterly digest of critical issues in health and environment, published in five languages and distributed to opinion leaders around the world, and for free in developing countries.

2.       The annual international conference on Health and the Environment: Global Partners for Global Solutions held at United Nations headquarters in New York since 1992. The world's leading authorities in the field of environmental medicine share their latest findings and discuss possible solutions with leaders in governments, business, organizations, and the media.

3.       Development of Humanities Library CD-ROM projects focusing on sustainable development and human health.

4.       Since 1995, WIT has been providing and promoting humanitarian relief to areas devastated by environmental degradation. Supplies and equipment have been sent to hospitals and orphanages in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout.

5.       Centers for Health & Environment providing centralized specific scientific data pertaining to health and sustainability issues. The objective of the Centers is to provide ongoing research, education and implementation of corrective programs. The first center was opened in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1992 and moved to Lviv, Ukraine, in 1996. The second opened in Beirut, Lebanon, in 1997.

WIT currently operates from headquarters in New York City with regional directors in Australia, Canada, Colombia, Egypt, France, Germany, Holland, India, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Nigeria, Russia, Switzerland, USA, Ukraine.  WIT is on the Board of the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations or CONGO.



Examples PART I

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