Earth Summit 2002   Freshwater Issue Paper

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This paper is being continuously updated, based on discussions within the Issue Advisory Group. Stakeholder Forum, with its Implementation Conference Team, is facilitating the consultations. The coordinator for freshwater is Jasmin Enayati (


Implementation Conference: Stakeholder Action For Our Common Future


Issue Paper V4 – WORK IN PROGRESS! - 25 April 2002



1. Framework for the IC process 

2. History of the IC process on freshwater so far 

3. Planned activities between now and the IC event 

4. Possible focus areas and possible joint stakeholder action 



“Water is essential to our health, our spiritual needs, our comfort, our livelihoods, and our ecosystems. Yet everywhere water quality is declining, and the water stress on humanity and our ecosystems increases. More and more people live in very fragile environments. (…) The reality of floods and droughts touches increasing numbers and many live with scarcity. (…) The primary responsibility for ensuring equitable and sustainable water resources management rests with governments. It requires the participation of all stakeholders who use or protect water resources and their ecosystems. (…) There is enough water for everybody in the world, but only if we change the way we manage it. The responsibility to act is ours – for the benefit of the present and future generations…we need new coalitions” (from the outcome documents of the Bonn Freshwater Conference).


1. Framework for the IC process

The IC process is designed to facilitate joint stakeholder action in order to contribute to the implementation of recent international agreements, such as: The Hague Ministerial Declaration at 2nd World Water Forum; the Millennium Summit Targets; the Bonn International Conference on Freshwater, the CSD-8 decision, and Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 (see Freshwater Resources).

Each possible stakeholder action plan should be examined for its potential to contribute to poverty eradication; social inclusion and empowerment; good governance; and gender equity.

The work on freshwater should take advantage of the media attention it can generate. Linkages to energy issues, health issues, food security, and corporate / stakeholder citizenship should be developed.

The IC process should also aim to influence the intergovernmental process towards the Johannesburg Summit. For some focus areas, it seems most effective to take a two-pronged approach, aiming to impact the type 1 and type 2 Summit outcome documents so that they become mutually reinforcing. Hence, the group may choose to develop joint statements and lobbying strategies as well as develop joint implementation action.


2. History of the IC process on freshwater so far

First explanatory meeting held in Bonn, 5 December 2001

First IAG meeting held in New York during PrepComm II, 29 Jan 2002

Issue Paper V1 available Jan 2002; version 2 available in March

IAG telephone conference 15 March 2002 (discussion of priorities and possible joint action)

Draft Collaborative Stakeholder Action Plans available 25 March

Second IAG dinner meeting in New York during PrepComm III: 26 March 2002

IAG comments on version 3 of the freshwater issue paper by 12 April (identify 5-10 main main themes and key points; structure these themes and advise what could be done to deal with them – think of action plans; suggest IC participants)


3. Planned activities between now and the IC event

IAG meeting at Swiss Conference on sustainable water management (25/26 April)

Possibly IAG telephone conference

SF to produce Issue Paper V5

IAG meeting at PrepCom IV in Bali

Pursue an iterative process of developing the Issue Paper; developing Action Plans; identifying interested parties and participants; and considering how possible outcomes could be financed.


4. Possible focus areas and possible joint stakeholder action

General remark:

List of focus areas includes both ends (eg access to safe and affordable drinking water) and means (eg. private sector engagement). One suggestion was to focus on ends within the IC process and consider multiple means/leverage points to achieve them (eg. governance, regulation, review of public/private engagement, capacity-building, financing.


Which of these ideas should be developed further into IC outcomes?

Suggest people who should be at the IC to deal with these suggestions should these suggestions get there

Possible Focus Areas *
as identified in international agreements

Desirable (Inter)Governmental Action

(Type 1)

Possible Joint Stakeholder Action Towards Implementation
(Type 2)

Equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water

§         Halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water (Millennium Target)

§         Meet the water security needs of the poor – for livelihoods, health and welfare, production and food security and reducing vulnerability to disasters. Pro-poor water policies focus on listening to the poor about their priority water security needs.

§         Sectoral themes such as water need to be harmonised with, and possibly integrated into, national strategies for poverty reduction such as Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers PSRPs), which are themselves multi-stakeholder processes
- should there be greater emphasis on the linkages between NSSDs and PRSPs [remembering that PRSPs are specific to Debt Relief and that there will be other poverty-reduction strategies in other countries, especially outside Africa].
PRSPs: we might have to look at the overall level of indebtedness of national governments, especially to the international financial institutions.  Debt reduction should be a big focus in the freshwater, poverty reduction debate














§         Reaffirm the recommendations of the Bonn Conference on priority actions for mobilising financial resources

§         Reaffirm that water resources development should be based on optimal solutions for all users within catchment basins, including protecting water rights, providing sufficient amounts of water for domestic and other uses; recognizing the needs and special circumstances of Indigenous Peoples and the poor

§         Include gender impact assessments for all water projects to ensure equal responsibilities and benefits among women and men, including distribution of work, paid opportunities and capacity building

·         Restructured sector investments by reallocating a higher proportion of funds to affordable and appropriate projects in rural and low-income urban areas, where needs are greatest.


Bonn recommendation should be reaffirmed, evaluated and turned into action (Jim Oatridge)


















·         Identify strategies and existing programmes and projects for access to clean water and sanitation (good practices; lessons learned)

·         Involve small and medium sized businesses in developing countries; create partnerships and generate support for their actions to provide water & sanitation, particularly in rural areas. Very important to recognise the wider range of actors in sector.
 – local entrepreneurial, self-help skills are often under-stated and certainly under-represented in multi-stakeholder discussions. (e.g. Community based Water Services Providers and Water Users Committees, and the Business Partners for Development model - Sarah, RandWater)
- involve small and medium sized businesses in developing countries in the partnership proposal for water access and water resource management. the big organizations are already well represented and can function as providers of information , knowledge banks, training and capacity building in transferable issues, albeit not all of them (Maria, IMAH). 

·         Consider ability for employment generation

·         Social transition measures, for example, measures of re-education & training for workers who lose their jobs when water utilities get an "effectivity increase" (for example, through privatisation & outplacements)

·         Clear distinction between water for basic human and livelihood needs and water for commercial purposes

·         Examine balance of available resources in watershed management (conflicting needs between rural and urban users)

·         Stakeholder to conduct joint reviews of water strategies at national level in developing countries (GWA annual facts and figures report 2002 will concentrate on policies and institutions – identify stakeholder partnerships for collection of data)

·         Review stakeholder participation in national strategies for poverty reduction and/or PSRPs as they relate to water issues, assess lessons learnt, and develop strategies for improvement where necessary.
- WaterAid is engaged in a major review [with ODI] on behalf of DFID of the water and sanitation aspects of PRSPs – countries included are Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Uganda and Kenya.  There will be a high-level conference presenting these findings [the end of Phase I of the research project] in May 2002.
– promotion of watershed development and water harvesting technologies should be included in national poverty reduction strategies where applicable (proved to reduce poverty, improve livelihood opportunities, increase food availability)

·         Identify opportunities for gender impact assessments by donors and stakeholder partnerships (using Methodology for Participatory Assessments – a framework for sustained and equitable WSS services with gender, demand, poverty and equity objectives – developed by Water and Sanitation Program/WB and IRC Int’l Water and Sanitation Centre).

·         Identify opportunities for stakeholder partnerships in providing ‘facts and figures’ on gender and water (GWA annual report based on Human Development Report)

·         The collection of gender disaggregated data to distinguish differences in needs, interest and priorities for water use

·         Identify opportunities for broadening the scope and impact of good practices through stakeholder partnerships (eg, GWA programme with grants for pilots to test, validate and replicate good practise)

·         look at lessons learnt and means of implementation (infrastructure, capacity-building, technical skills, finance); e.g. BOT (build – operate - transfer)

Provide equitable access to safe, sufficient and affordable sanitation

§         To halve, by 2015 the present proportion of people without effective and hygienic sanitation (Bonn Rec.).

Need a target and local specific plan of action to half the present proportion by 2015 and ensure services by 2025



§         Adopt a sanitation target corresponding to the MDG on access to water, eg: “A global plan of action, with financial and technical assistance from developed countries, to have, by 2015, the proportion of people without access to sanitation, with assistance provided to national and local governments for the development and implementation of efficient sanitation systems and infrastructure while safeguarding human health” (WSSCC)

·         Clear government responsibility and political will to ensure integrated approaches to sanitation and hygiene improvement are mainstreamed into government sector policies and championed by a single line Ministry

·         Agree a programme of action for implementing Agenda 21 – see WSSCC draft language



·         Sanitation is linked to pollution control very closely. It is only fair that the Polluter Pays Principle should be adopted and given enforcement ‘teeth’ in each country. This is one way in which diseases such as cholera can be prevented (Sarah, Randwater)

Financing & Resources

Governments to commit to providing adequate resources for reaching targets.


Mobilize international and domestic financial resources at all levels for water and sanitation infrastructure and services, transfer of technology and knowledge and capacity building, ensuring that water and sanitation infrastructure and services meet the needs of the poor, low-income and vulnerable groups and are gender-sensitive.  Sound methodologies are needed to assess the environmental, economic and social costs and benefits of new water resources developments to ensure the best
use of resources (WSSCC)

§         Review of the resources required to achieve the Millenium Development Goals

§         develop new finance mechanisms for investment in public infrastructure without privatisation.

§         Discussion on the need to focus on sustainability of outcomes and institutional arrangements


Integrated water resource management for protecting ecosystems and sustainable water resources

§         Stopping the unsustainable exploitation of water resources by developing integrated water management strategies (Millennium Target)

§         Preventing pollution

§         Water management organisations from community to basin level to include effective representation of women and men of all social strata




§         Call on governments to work with each other and with all stakeholders to develop and implement integrated water management strategies

§         Intensify the water pollution prevention to reduce health hazards and protect ecosystems by introducing affordable sanitation, treatment of waste water, monitoring and effective legal frameworks (WSSCC)

§         Support research efforts and refer to suitable international agencies (CGIAR for agriculture)

§         Comprehensive monitoring programmes and data bases on the various uses of water in major catchment basis, in order to achieve demand-based, multi-stakeholder water management strategies

§         Affirmative action required to secure balanced participation through clear criteria setting

§         Develop plans for transboundary action




§         Build on existing mechanisms

§         Use appropriate technologies, especially in agriculture

§         Focus on water conservation (Protection of water resources from external contamination; indiscriminate exploitation of groundwater; stormwater management)

§         Respect the linkages between ecosystems, habitat, and protection with efficiency, and with demand management, incl prices; pricing signals needed.

§         Capacity building regarding legislation and enforcement; working with UNEP Regional Centres

§         Global Water Partnership: aim to transfer the GWP Toolkit for regional level to national level

§         Design and conduct further research into non-conventional uses of water, such as wastewater, brackish and saline water, including cost effective desalination and water harvesting

§         Develop recommendations on the design of such programmes and data bases

§         Produce proposals for ‘Integrated Least Cost Planning’ to be accepted and implemented by all players in the supply chain (Sarah, RandWater)

Risk Management


Drought planning

Flood planning

Climate Change


Insurance Crop schemes

§         Call on governments to include Risk Management as part of their water resources planning disciplines.

§         Call on governments to work on the UNCCD (UN Convention to Combat Desertification) to implement its resolutions. Desertification should be taken as a systemic issue (socio-economic, climate problem)

§         Identify, review and promote good practice in community-level stakeholder action to prevent flooding

§         Promote rainwater harvesting systems
and look at existing approaches for efficient use of rainwater harvesting (e.g. historical irrigation practices)

§         Develop with individual local authorities early warning systems and disaster preparedness and management systems

§         Identify how to support UNEP's capacity, e.g "Early Warning Assessment" (identify areas of risk)

§         Regeneration and development of the eco-systems, catchment basins and watersheds with involvement of local residents

§         Promote appropriate farming methods to prevent desertification.

IFAP is carrying out a study on good farming practices in the fight against desertification and its negative impacts for WSSD. This could be undertaken as a joint research project, including the scientific community, Indigenous Peoples (to include traditional techniques), women’s groups, private sector.

Valuing Water

This does not have to stand on its own. It could fall under two other main issues : Finance and also Education (Sarah, RandWater)

Ongoing discussions about water pricing vis-à-vis cultural and spiritual meanings of water

Additional point is the tension between using water pricing to restrict / minimize the use of water [an ecological argument] and the inability of poor people to afford water on a full-cost recovery basis.


§         Link up with Human Rights Commission (Convention on Rights of the Child refers to Right to Water)

WaterAid is doing some work with others on a draft of the Right to Water. This might form a topic in its own right.


·         Water pricing: look at mechanisms of affordability and promote appropriate systems (eg tiered tariff systems: public/private.)

·         Appropriate levels of service that people can afford are very important for the developing world.

§         Share case studies for the provision of ‘life-line’ water services e.g. the 6 kl per month Free Basic Water model in South Africa.

§         Need for capacity building for experts on water pricing, adequate cross-subsidy systems, etc

§         The value of water is not just about pricing – it is also a major education requirement. Certainly in the developing nations there is a strong need for basic education about water as a resource.

§         Valuing water in non-financial sense


Private sector engagement in water supply and sanitation

§         Ongoing discussions about the actual scope and the actual impacts of private sector engagement

§         Private Sector engagement discussion could be:

o        Philosophical – i.e. only the state should provide basic services; basic services should be free at the point of delivery; profits should not be made from basic services. However, there is a cost in providing services, and that cost has to be met by someone e.g., Government, Local Authorities, "the rich", via cross-subsidiaries etc, and investment in infrastructure has to have a return either by way of profit or by Government providing subsidised loans etc. (Jim Oatridge)

o        And / or financial – what are the incentives required to achieve the financial resources required to meet the Millennium Development Goals?

o        And / or governance focused – how do you achieve managerial systems of control with disparate power / financial imbalances; what is the role of regulation and the regulator; can poor people become consumers; is this a monopoly or a cost problem?



Call on governments at the Summit not to discount the role of public-public partnerships. Public sector involvement can’t be automatically associated with less efficient delivery, and there are public sector organisations with capacity that should be maximized rather than marginalised.


Promote public-private partnerships by providing stable and transparent regulatory frameworks, involving all concerned stakeholders, and monitoring the performance and improving accountability of public institutions and private sector companies through good governance and the development of a code of ethics. (WSSCC)



§         Design and conduct a multi-stakeholder review of the social, economic, and environmental impacts of privatisation in the water sector

§         Include all types of utilities (not a question of either/or)

§         Link to existing initiatives
(e.g Tearfund's questionnaire on responsible business in the water sector; WaterAid's Assessment of approaches in public/private management; analysis by TU; WaterAid’s PSP research will produce a final report in late April / early May, after which there will be specific findings and positions.)

§         Share information on the way PPP contracts are regulated and develop best-practice guidelines for nations to adopt/ use.

§         Establish Performance Management systems which can be monitored and benchmarked (Sarah, RandWater)

§         Discussion on the need to focus on sustainability of outcomes and institutional arrangements.



General comment – governance is a very complicated issue in nations where there is a high degree of lawlessness –e.g. high crime, violence, intimidation, corruption etc. Where the moral fibre is seriously damaged it is extremely difficult to manage in any of these focus area. On top of that many countries have the added complications of a very heterogenous society in terms of many cultures and languages which makes communication difficult, and the building of a common vision and framework of how to get there.  The whole issue of rights versus responsibilities can be a very ‘hairy’ one, particularly in less educated communities (Sarah, RandWater)


·         Renew commitments by Governments and other stakeholders to priority actions in governance in water and sanitation and capacity building at all
levels, and to provide new and additional financial resources and innnovative technologies to developing countries in order to promote the
implementation of Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 (WSSCC)

·         Promote closer coordination among the various international and intergovernmental bodies working on water-related issues, both within he UN system and between the UN, international financial institutions, NGOs and other organizations within civil society. WSSCC

·         Recognise that the Ministerial Declaration of The Hague, the World Commission on Dams, and the Bonn Conference process have demonstrated that people and governments of different and sometimes opposing views can converge in constructive alternatives and form new partnerships on water resources management that go beyond sectoral approaches

·         Reaffirm the recommendations of the Bonn Conference on priority actions in the area of governance; including that participatory approaches to water resource management should be strengthened

·         Reference to Codes of Conduct (and their monitoring) in the water sector, particularly those developed and adopted by a variety of stakeholders

·         General Assembly to establish a process to globalise the Aarhus Convention

·         Develop institutional frameworks that work effectively to support sustainable development (to facilitate the building of partnerships among major groups and with governments for structuring implementation of Agenda 21). Develop institutional framework for water rights and access to water (Nora, IFAP)

·         National Water Authorities (consultative bodies that include all stakeholders, taking a participatory approach) would ensure harmonisation of water policies. Examples: the Netherlands, France, Italy, Algeria (Water Ministry), Lebanon.
IFAP’s Mediterranean Committee is developing this idea.

·         Strong independent regulators and ‘ombudsmen’ to be established in each country- and the regulator should have ‘teeth’. 

·         Establish an international water authority for managing the water resource (not for its supply). 

·         Develop a multi-stakeholder statement / campaign on good governance, transparency and accountability in the water sector (towards Summit process & beyond)

·         Use Jo’burg as a platform for public commitments on water governance; local governments would commit themselves to providing an inventory of water resources; other stakeholder groups could commit to making certain advances within 6 / 12 months (Kyoto – one step) within their area of weakness

·         Create linkages with the 'C41' process on national governance (WRI / IUCN / USCIB)

·         National multi-stakeholder councils to develop water management strategies (this might include advising on the regulatory framework)

·         Improve public governance by supporting public water managers, departments, etc.
(involve workers for reforming public water systems, for abetting polluting practices in industry, and to reach out to community members)

·         Local multi-stakeholder councils & Forums to develop water management strategies (which might include collaborative management mechanisms on access, price, and delivery of water & sanitation (e.g. pilot communities?) and gender issues – GWA developing advocacy tools for local governments to mainstream gender)

·         Develop and monitor a Code of Conduct for public and private delivery of water & sanitation (support public water managers, departments)

·         Address corruption - But remember that big blue-chip companies have resources to address this issue [at least in PR terms] – much corruption is petty-corruption affecting local government and the borehole contract – way out of the normal discussions of international conventions and Codes of Practice.

·         Set up joint information centres providing data on water quality for citizens, based on existing experience with such services (eg Eco-Telephone in the Ukraine); establish links with The Access Initiative (WRI et al)

·         look at the feasibility of the Aarhus Convention by focusing on water as one element (e.g focus on water policy, collection of data etc. in 1-2 countries)

·         Introduce more concrete measures of implementing principle 10 of Rio Declaration (access to environmental information)

·         Investment for integrated rural development plans (economic and social infrastructure, capacity building for local governance).

·         Establish Performance Management systems which can be monitored and benchmarked (Sarah, RandWater)

Monitoring pledges and commitments

Review of international and national commitments that come out of WSSD


This should be built into every Focus Area as part of the “Means’ – the way we do things – or it can be assimilated into Good Governance



§         Establish multi-stakeholder review mechanisms to follow-up, held citizens in each country, hold their governments / officials to account on the agreements they enter.

§         Establishing an institutional framework to facilitate the building of partnerships among major groups and with governments for structuring implementation of Agenda 21 (Nora, IFAP)

Water for Food

§         Securing water for food production

§         Irrigated agriculture offers large potential in terms of water savings, the benefits of which can be shared with other sectors.

§         Water-rich food should not be produced in water scarce areas (However, if poorer countries can produce high value produce for export, thereby creating real inward wealth, then this may be a way of raising funds for investment in water infrastructure.  What is necessary is that such exports reflect a "full price" for the value of water exported – Jim)

§         Water management is closely tied with secure land tenure arrangements and access to land


§         Review agricultural production and exports and its impacts on water resources

§         Review laws and policies to ensure women especially equal rights to water and access to land (and for farmer – men and women)

§         Training and Credit for women and farmers to improve land and water use for food production


§         Develop partnerships between researchers and farmers to develop appropriate agricultural technologies

§         Establish a capacity building fund in each region for major groups (Nora, IFAP)

§         Develop partnerships between researchers and farmers to develop appropriate agricultural technologies.
IFAP is involved in a dialogue group with the International Water Management Institute. One of their aims is to involve farmers in research work to develop suitable technologies

§         Stewardship programs for agricultural good practice

§         Use water saving technologies, eg new / low cost irrigation technologies

§         Develop with supermarket chains water maps of food production & develop appropriate alternatives to ensure that people in water scarce areas grow crops with low water requirements or of high value compared to the water used.

§         create links with existing scoping exercises of decentralised freshwater management (e.g. WELL, info will be provided)

§         Water management is closely tied with land tenure arrangements [concrete action ideas available from discussions on land / women's access to, management and control of land, CSD 2000]

§         Use water permit systems to control what the water is used for and how much can be allocated to various farming crops.

Water and Health

- link to sanitation -

§         Access to water and sanitation facilities is a basic human right that safeguards health and human dignity. Every human deserves the right to be protected from disease and other health hazards posed by poor disposal of excreta and human waste.

§         Children are the first and most vulnerable to fall prey to such hazards, deserve a better environment and highest standard of living possible (nearly 2 million children die each yr. from diarrhoea)

§         Health and social consequences because of the lack of WSS are especially harsh for women and girls: loss of dignity when there are no latrines; compelling them to wait until dark exposing them to harassment and sexual assaults; lack of education due to the absence of school WSS facilities; increase of heavy workloads and infectious diseases associated with the lack of WSS

§         Investments in water quality and quantity can reduce deaths by diarrhoea by 17%, sanitation can reduce it to 36% and hygiene promotion by 33%


§         link up with Human Rights Commission (Convention on Rights of the Child refers to Right to Water)


§         The UN reporting under the Convention of the Elimination of the Discrimination against women (CEDAW) should include indicators/statistics relating to gender and water

§         Reaffirm Millennium Declaration signed in 2000 to promote a sanitation target which has been overlooked




§         Identify stakeholder partnerships to join the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) in promoting the WASH campaign including testing and adapting ‘communication for development strategy’ used by UN organisations in implementing health, water and environmental sanitation programmes

§         Identify, review and promote good practice in community-level stakeholder action to advocate hygiene and safe water practices and promotion of appropriate technologies (rainwater harvesting)

§         Promotion of private sector participation

§         Development of indicators to track progress

§         Strengthening public accountability, improving regulations, legislation and effective monitoring.


Large infra-structure projects

(not a priority area; use as a reference point)


This could fall under ‘Good Governance’

Adopt a reference to the World Dams Commission recommendations and the need for national governments to review and incorporate them in national legislation

·         Promote the recommendations of the World Commission on Dams

look at alternatives to major dams (micro-dams), possibly in cooperation with former WCD)

Capacity-building, training and education

Capacity-building should take a 3 level approach:

(a) At the Government level, there is a need to build capacity within Government (national, regional and local, as appropriate) to develop the  enabling conditions, i.e. water policies, water laws, regulatory frameworks, water enforcement provisions. It is also an area where ODA monies could be best targeted.
(b) At the utility level, there is a need to build "management" capacity i.e. strategic planning, investment plans, business and business plans, management and accountability processes etc.
(c) At the water operator level, there is considerable need for operator training on plant operations, maintenance etc.



§         Capacity building and training targeted at:

§         capacity of women to manage water and related financial resources to improve efficient water use

§         increase scientific and technical education for women

§         support water professionals in integrating gender perspectives in their work at all levels

§         Farmers are not organised enough to be able to participate as effective partners in Sustainable Development and its implementation.




§         Reaffirm the recommendations of the Bonn Conference on priority actions in the areas of capacity building and sharing knowledge such as monitoring, assessment and management of water resources

§         Promote public information and participation at all levels in support of policy and decision-making related to water resources management and project implementation, using the watershed or integrated river-basin approach, to enhance the sustainability of water projects. In this regard,
women, as the main providers and users of local water resources, should be empowered to play an active role in water resources management and policy – WSSCC

§         Support  through technological, technical and financial programmes the diffusion of technology and capacity-building for non-conventional water resources and conservation technologies,  including  desalination, recycling and rainwater harvesting technologies, to developing countries and regions facing water scarcity conditions or subject to drought and desertification (WSSCC)

§         Make available sufficient resources for capacity-building, training, education.. to all stakeholders including farmers women and men.. and marketing communications programmes e.g. social marketing campaigns to promote positive ‘water wise’ behaviours.

§         Support electronic and non-electronic knowledge banks and other tools for knowledge exchange and management (eg via UNEP's Freshwater Portal)

§         Include local communities, local authorities, trade unions, and women's groups and farmers in the development of capacity-building tools

§         Support and elaborate proposals on the activities leading to the International Year of Freshwater 2003 and beyond. WSSCC


§         Highlight the need to build capacity, especially at a district level to implement programmes.

§         Capacity-building for local authorities to enable them to set up water management systems, particularly in Africa (and gender issues through GWA training programme and advocacy tools)

§         Developing and linking knowledge banks, including indigenous technologies such as rainwater harvesting, e.g. Intermediate Development Technology Group (ITDG) on training, capacity-building; IRC's STREAM project (global database on water projects);

§         Work with an international agency to set up an information and technology bank for effective water and sanitation management as well as public information and community education materials; possibly including existing distance learning programmes; eg linked with UNEPs Freshwater Portal and UN system-wide World Water Assessment report and GWA’s annual facts and figures report

§         Develop community-based indicator programmes to feed into the World Water Assessment Report. Data should be disaggregated by gender.

§         Train water experts and policy makers to work in a gender-inclusive manner (GWA training on gender and water as well as capacity building to become gender ambassadors)

§         Develop empowerment measures for women to take up leadership and managerial roles in water resources policies and management.

§         Expand existing local authorities twinning programmes to include all appropriate stakeholders and enable transfer of stakeholder capacities in the water and sanitation sector

§         spread information into training tools in order to empower local communities and they will do their job on good governance

§         NORA, IFAP: More resources by national and local authorities into building  up the capacity building of Farmets Organisations to contribute to self-help development in establishing stakeholder consultation processes.


§         Training for communities to manage and maintain their own water projects e.g  the Mvula Trust model in South Africa, and the training and providing work for Community Leakfixers (SMME) in South Africa. Training should be in hard and soft skills e.g. training Community Liaison Officers is as important as training Project Book keepers.

§         Education and awareness campaigns should address the basics e.g. how water gets to my tap; the water cycle; how to ready my bill; the value of water and why we should pay for it; hygiene and sanitation; the wise use of water etc.

§         But education and awareness are only the first step to changing behaviours. Professionally managed ‘Social Marketing Campaigns’ should be established to promote positive water behaviours and outcomes.

§         Partnerships with the media for maximum impact

§         Legislate water issues as part of the school curriculum – supported by sponsored resources for teachers in the classroom.

§         Employ full time custodians/ wardens for water & sanitation monitoring and training – officials and contracted community members.

§         Run stakeholder forums with regular meetings. Benefits include: ongoing information sharing e.g. best practice case studies & industry developments; joint problem solving and policy development. Breaking down silos within and between organisations builds capacity within the whole sector.    

§         Implement Performance Management systems that allow people to benchmark their own development.


Household consumption patterns


Part of Education above ?









§         Develop multi-media campaigns on water related issues; eg design and run awareness raising campaigns related to the International Year of Freshwater (2003) e.g. how to read my meter, how to audit my water use; how to fix my leaking tap etc.

§         Empower people at local level to set up water user associations

§         Share and replicate successful public awareness and education tools on water, its sustainable use and conservation (Water Wise campaigns) between countries and communities, eg via water suppliers and local authorities

§         Establish incentives & disincentives, a ‘carrot & stick’ approach. There have to be negative consequences for wasteful use of water.

§         Each household/ institution has to be individually metered for equity reasons the ability to measure. The service providers have to read meters accurately & regularly and send accurate bills on time. 



* Focus areas that bear potential for effective joint stakeholder action should be included.


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