Earth Summit 2002  


Workshop on Stakeholder Citizenship and the Health Sector

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First Draft Discussion Paper, 13 Dec 2001

Corporate / Stakeholder Citizenship

Many businesses, in some cases encouraged by a voluntary framework, have already embraced the goal of sustainable development (SD) and are working towards that objective. Others have not.  A more coherent framework is required to support a move of all businesses towards goal congruence: a congruence between the goals of different businesses and the broad goal of sustainable development. Additional action can be taken over and above the framework to encourage appropriate behaviour.

Corporate citizenship (a contested  expression) is about citizenship (i.e. being a good corporate citizen) being at the heart of strategic planning within businesses

Stakeholder citizenship is about extending this concept to all organisations. 


Corporate Citizenship Overview

Potential Action Areas

A. The Current Conceptual Framework How can the framework be improved?
What steps can stakeholders take to bring about such improvement?

Corporate Responsibility

External factors:

Guidelines e.g. OECD guidelines Which are the best? How to support?
Legislation No requirement for cost internalisation
Subsidy Often inconsistent with SD
Taxation Often inconsistent with SD
Stakeholder influence  


Reporting e.g.GRI Best approach? How can stakeholders influence?
Verification Best approach? How can stakeholders influence?


To shareholders  
Legal? Desirable? Outline terms.
To stakeholders? Desirable? Who defines stakeholders? How to implement?

B Encouragement for leading sustainable development companies


League tables

- international


Desirable? How to support? How to ensure that they are used/ have impact?

C Encouragement of laggards and middle group


Best practice/ benchmarking
e.g. Global Compact

Positive NGO campaigns


Encouraging corporate change initiatives

(instilling the organisation with a set of values)

via stakeholder dialogues

via legislation



How to substantially increase the number of corporations with a set of values compatible with sustainable development ?

D Specific examples of corporate citizenship

Focus on Process examples (substantive examples dealt with under Other Issues)



Possible Stakeholder Action Steps:

  1. Draw  up Corporate Citizenship Conceptual Framework

  2. Map existing initiatives onto Framework

  3. Assess relative merits of existing initiatives and identify gaps

  4. Draw up Target Framework

  5. Identify steps that need to be taken to achieve Target Framework



To what extent is this framework applicable to all stakeholder groups – e.g. NGOs, Trade Unions etc ?

How could it be modified? e.g. to include legitimacy

What steps should be taken to introduce such a framework?

Should the relationship between stakeholders and Governments be addressed?

Should stakeholder collaboration be addressed?

Does the term “Corporate and stakeholder citizenship” adequately describe the issues covered here?



Ayres, R (1973): Presentation at Ecology and Business Conference, Insead, France

Colloquium on the Liability of Multinational Corporations Under International Law, Rotterdam (1999)

Barber, J (1997) Minding our Business: The role of Corporate Accountability in Sustainable Development, an Independent Assessment  to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development by NGO Taskforce on Business and Industry, Intergrated Staregies Forum, Washington, USA

European Environment Agency (2000) Business and the environment: current trends and developments in corporate reporting and ranking

Elkington, J (1997) Cannibals with forks, Capstone Publishing, Oxford, UK

Enayati, J (2001) Report on online debate What should Earth Summit 2002 be trying to achieve? UNED Forum, London

Van der Gaag, P (2001) Global Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility Regimes, Governments, stakeholders and how to use companies in creating and protecting sustainable societies

Lord Holme (1999) Corporate Social Responsibility : speech given at Norsk Hydro conference 28/4/99

McIntosh, M et al (1998) Corporate Citizenship: Successful Strategies for Responsible Companies Financial Times Management, London

Moody-Stuart, Sir Mark (2001) Speech at lecture sponsored by the Schumacher Society and the United Nations Environment and development – UK Committee, London, UK

Toronto Multi-stakeholder Consultative Meeting on Voluntary Initiatives and Agreements, (1999): Chairman’s Summary

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Workshop on Stakeholder Citizenship and the Health Sector

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